Spis treści

Spis treści




Iwona Sawulska: Folklor jako inspiracja w twórczości pieśniarskiej: Fryderyka Chopina, Stanisława Moniuszki, Stanisława Niewiadomskiego i Karola Szymanowskiego

Jolanta Skorek-Műnch: Młodzieńcze opery Mozarta [html] [pdf pdf (146.52 KB)  ]

Małgorzata Cymbalista-Zakrzewska: Technika koncertująca w „Sacrarum cantionum..." Annibale Orgasa

Edward Torończak SJ: Opcja fundamentalna jako „nowy" paradygmat moralności?

Justyna Sprutta: Kanon w ikonie a jej niekanoniczność




Maria Ołdakowska, rec.: Anna Niedźwiedź, Obraz i postać. Znaczenia wizerunku Matki Boskiej Częstochowskiej, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2005 [pdf pdf (114.33 KB]

Ks. Mariusz Rosik: Bóg w poszukiwaniu człowieka - człowiek w poszukiwaniu Boga, rec.: M. Serretti, Rozpoznawanie Boga, tłum. M. Kowalski, Verbum, Kielce 2006

Arkadiusz Jabłoński, rec.: Ks. Stanisław Kowalczyk, Człowiek w poszukiwaniu wartości. Elementy aksjologii personalistycznej, Wydawnictwo KUL, Lublin 2006

Lech Giemza, rec.: Jakub Kozaczewski, Polska tradycja literacka w poetyce Nowej Fali, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej, Kraków 2004


Folklore as an Inspiration in Singing Creativity: Fryderyk Chopin, Stanisław Moniuszko,
Stanisław Niewiadomski and Karol Szymanowski

Interest in song bore various forms depending on ideological and aesthetical trends of a given epoch. In certain periods of history an increase in national and ethnical feelings can be observed, and in others there is a clear weakening of them. It is presumed that political programs and the need for self-designation of a given society decide this.
The degree of the effect of musical folklore was diverse. Some compositions are styles of folk songs, others use a simple folk melody, applying rhythmic verses and word texts while keeping the local jargon. Idyllic types of songs, dumky, and folk ballads and patriotic rhapsody initiated by F. Chopin was accepted and developed by S. Moniuszko. In this creativity we discover solo and choral religious songs, among which are found Church works of folk songs, carols and funeral songs.
Interest in folk music continued in XX century vocal-instrumental lyrics, despite a differing aesthetical approach. By degree there was a resignation from folk simplicity and a tendency to use symbolist texts, and tonal values of the music and word obtained particular worth. The idea initiated by F. Chopin and S. Moniuszko to popularize Polish folk music was continued by a numberous groups of followers, the so-called Post-Moniuszko generation. W. Żeleński, Z. Noskowski, J. Gall and S. Niewiadomski belonged to them. Niewiadomski made several studies of Polish carols. He composed similar in style carols to the S. Rossowski's lyrics and incorporated them in the collection of various works of folk songs. Composers of Young Poland postulated that technically acquired Eastern-European music (including symphonies), be incorporated on the basis of Polish music. The most prominent in this group was K. Szymanowski, who indeed turned to folk music but this occurred only in the third period of creativity (the so-called "national"). The folk issue remained developed in full in the cycle of "Pieśni kurpiowskich" op. 58, being a work of authentic melodies from the Puszcza Zielona region.
Musical folklore was a rich source of inspiration for further generations of creators and re-creators. The phenomenon incorporates music from various nations and continents. The historical background of the epoch is important, aesthetical trends current and the influence of the artistic environment. One principle fact is important for me: the song creativity of such composes as S. Moniuszko or S. Niewiadomski comprised the major part of their artistic heritage, others, such as F. Chopin, paid attention to song somewhat on the margin of their creativity. Each of them had a different construction of artistic personality. Despite differences, they felt the same need to draw from models of folklore.

Mozart’s Youth Operas

Mozart’s youth operas – from the singspiel The Obligation of the First Commandment to the opera seria Lucio Silla are a testimony to his unusually quick and effective assimilated varied theatrical-musical conventions in the second half of the XVIII century – singspiel, musical comedies, “serenades,” opera buffa and opera seria. Independently of the accepted by Leopold Mozart and the scrupulously achieved strategy of creating his son into a wonder child, Wolfgang was really fascinated by opera and throughout his whole life saw in it the highest way of expressing his artistic endeavors. In order to grasp in the proper light his earliest opera creativity, three basic elements must be taken into account – the circumstances in which these works came about, Mozart’s awareness as an opera composer, and finally the objective value of his youthful attempts. Studies on the genesis of these early compositions show that they arose on demand, which his father strove for, and afterwards surely Wolfgang himself, yet without the possibility to choose the libretto. In effect, it was a common practice of the time: operas were ordered in advance for the specific libretto and for a particularly determined occasion. Without a doubt, at the beginning Mozart did not take into consideration the literary worth of the libretto on which he was working. Similarly, in his youthful years he was not aware of the existence of the principle problem of opera, which is the continual shifting of accents between “drama” and “music,” a psychological truth and often vocal show. In order to understand in which way the twelve year old could compose a three act opera buffa, we ought to remember that the group of soloists in such an arrangement was composed of types, and in effect the composer was to consider these types. In turn the series opera was a conventionalized genre to a certain degree blocking the easy invention of the composer. In a later period, Mozart was able to in a masterful way take advantage of all possibilities which made up the then practiced opera conventions.

Annibale Orgas’ Concert Technique in “Sacrarum cantionum...”

In his motets in the collection of „Sacrarum cantionum...” Annibale Orgas – in the introduction as well as in the way of utilizing concert techniques – does not deviate from its contemporary creators. Composers creating in the beginning of the XVII century willingly used this technique. On the one hand they performed a type of concertato motet. On the other hand, the concert technique (along with the polichoral technique) laid at the basis of bichoral motets. In Orgas, a reflection of these techniques is clearly visible, including in the 6-voice and 8-voice motets.
The way of using the concert technique also does not deviate from currently applied patterns, but particular similarities and preferences are apparent, characteristic of the composer’s style, which were described in detail in the above article.
Orgas most of all accomplishes this based on the basis of texture – excluding from the staff of the whole composition numerous low-voice or solo deviations and transposing them, on the basis of contrast, with tutti fragments. On the other hand, he often uses the phrase with an internal contrast, which he likes to apply in technical solutions typical for concert techniques, such as interposing a lesser-motive part of a phrase into various voices of melodic structures. (He also utilizes this phrase in motets not using the concert techniques as a thematic phrase, given to vocal imitation or imitation of numerous rudimentary imitations or imitations with numerous dual tetrads.
Characteristic technical concert traits used by Orgas also include particularly treated instrumental accompaniment, duplicating groups of vocal voices.

The Fundamental Option as the “New” Moral Paradigm?

One must agree with the view that the theory of the fundamental option is one of many attempts to renew post-conciliar moral theology. Without a doubt it comprises a hermeneutic key which allows for a deeper understanding of the moral life of contemporary people, since it (the option) does not relate only to individual moral acts, but comprises the entire person, their existential framework. That is why it also has a significant meaning in perceiving Christian morality not only as the morality of “act” but most of all as the morality of the “person.” In this sense it presents a certain model for interpreting the moral actions of a person, and in particular their essential dimension which is fundamental freedom. However this type of a model for interpreting morality – developed by proponents of the so-called new moral theology – is characterized to a great extent by a double meaning. In the estimation of the moral theory of the fundamental option the controversy remains as long as a dualistic anthropology of man is accepted, as well as a subjective approach to human morality.

Canon in the Icon and its non-Canonicity

The canon of the icon was formed over centuries, remaining in close relation with the Bible, liturgy and theology of the Fathers of the Church. It found its painted expression in the icon having an image of a picture on wood but also in the fresco or mosaics, therefore it was described in the hermeneutics (sub-lines) being somewhat textbooks designated for icon authors, among whom the textbook most known is Hermenea by Dionysus of Furna. In this way, the chosen icons became, over the centuries, select models for other images presenting this same theme, for example the pattern for presenting the three Persons of Divinity was and still remains Andrzej Rublow’s Holy Trinity icon. The unchanged canon for writing icons, however, underwent the destructive to it influence of Western-Christian religious art. The Old Rite tried to save the canonical icon from this damage to Occident canonical icon writing in Russia. Today our view leads to the icon following the canon incorporating not only the person, composition or symbolical hue, gestures, robes and the like, but even incorporates the technique of creating icons and in general the whole workshop of icon writing. Even when in the Christian East religious art changed its face, in the Christian West it was primarily thanks to the canonical iconography that the icon did not loose its identity.

Autor: Robert Kryński
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 24.09.2008, godz. 09:53 - Robert Kryński