Spis treści



Spis treści




Bożena Chrząstowska: Dokument oświatowy wielofunkcyjny? O podstawie programowej języka polskiego z 23 grudnia 2008 r.

Ks. Stanisław Janeczek: Z dziejów nowożytnej koncepcji logiki. Od F. Bacona do É. Condillaca

Teresa Zawojska: Wojciecha Dzieduszyckiego filozofia jako droga poszukiwania prawdy

Ks. Michał M. Maciołek: Mieczysław H. Markowski – życie i działalność naukowa

Ks. Marian Radwan SCJ:
Rosyjska Cerkiew Prawosławna w latach 1917-1925

Urszula Niewiadomska-Flis: A Fragile (Dis)position – the (Ab)uses of ‘Feminine Diseases’ in Southern Patriarchal Ideology [pdf pdf]









Maria Gorlińska, rec.: Bożena Chrząstowska, Przedmiot, podmiot i proces. Szkice z metodyki kształcenia polonistycznego, Wydawn. „Poznańskie Studio Polonistyczne”, Poznań 2009

o. Roman Jusiak OFM, rec.: Ks. Edward Walewander, Działalność wychowawcza Kościoła Lubelskiego 1939-1945, Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego Jana Pawła II, Lublin 2009

o. Roman Jusiak OFM, rec.: Franciszka Wanda Wawro, Młodzież a kultura życia w kontekstach społecznych, Wydawnictwo KUL, Lublin 2008

Ryszard Zajączkowski, rec.: Schreiben ist Totenerweckung. Theologie und Literatur, hrsg. Erich Garhammer, Georg Langenhorst, Echter, Würzburg 2005






Multi-functional Educational Documents?
About the basic curriculum for Polish classes from December 23, 2008


Reforming the Polish school system continues on without a break since the 70s, and it is ineffective since it is carried out in a hurry, without teachers’ preparation. The article compares two principle educational documents introduced in the 90s. The Basic Curriculum for Polish Classes and the “new” legislation for this subject confirmed in 2008.
What was this document from the 90s? It formed the foundation of the open school, ensuring freedom and objectivity for students and teachers, at the same time designating “common and necessary contents” yet not concretely – this was left to the program for teaching. The basis of the program was set by the philosophy of education, goals, general vectors, frameworks and conditions for formation. What is the new document of the year 2008?
Written in a language of requirements, it contains in depth notes, making precise every detail of knowledge or skill which must be achieved “in the completed aspect.” This document concentrates not on the goals of education, not on the process of teaching, but on the results. It is undoubtedly a “list of requirements,” a record of detailed and set standards, but it does not fulfill the principle functions of the program, it does not contain the philosophy of educating, it leaves room for whatever lax choices for the taught contents.
The details of the notes causes that this “list of requirements” is transformed into a stiff program of teaching, which is supported by the control activities of the Central Examination Commission. The above statements are based on the article by pedagogical, psychological and meritorical argumentation. The last proves that the “new” reform restricts the Polish language teacher. Thinking about “effective education” is ruled by the traditionally grasped teaching material, not by the student and his or her needs in the XXI century nor by a new literature and language methodology.

Key words: program requirements, philosophy of education, objectivity of the teacher and student, list of requirements, examination standards, “effective teaching”, results.



On the history of the modern conception of logics.
From F. Bacon to É. Condillac


The paper discusses the issue of gradual departure from the conception of logics characteristic of the modern Christian Aristotelianism, which emphasises the role of logics in comprehensive organisation of the acquired knowledge. F. Bacon, R. Descartes, J. Locke and E. Condillac show the idleness of the rules of traditional logics in developing scientific discovery method. By limiting the value of logics’ influence on the efficiency of thinking, they restrict it to the form of epistemology, which emphasises the role of logics as a natural property. That is why, on the one hand they emphasise the role of developing the effective scientific discovery methods, which are often based on mathematics (rationalistic tradition). On the other hand, they accentuate the importance of getting acquainted with the rules of functioning of the psyche, which are expressed in normative categories (empirical tradition). In every respect they care rather for shaping the practical skill than the complex rules of reasoning. In the first place, they indicate the importance of the material basis of knowledge, which is acquired by means of empirical research.

Key words: conception of logics, Christian Aristotelianism, F. Bacon, R. Descartes, J. Locke, E. Condillac



Wojciech Daniduszycki’s Philosophy
As a Way to Discover Truth

MThe year 2009 is the hundredth anniversary of Wojciech Dzieduszycki’s death, which is a time to remember his merits in various areas of social and cultural life. He was also distinguished in the field of philosophy, undertaking it in a classical spirit – as a study inquiring about truth. This characteristic of philosophy was exhibited in his reflections on history of philosophy and systems. Truth was grasped in a metaphysical sense (ontic) – as the essential trait of reality. The most essential difference between the educated in the area of real sciences and a philosopher was perceived by him in that the first in their research activities discovers partial truths, while the second, on the other hand, tries to get to the essence of truth. He pointed to the non-relative character of truth. Also, the history of philosophy, understood as an integral part of philosophy, he grasped as the searching in past systems that which was truth.

Key words: philosophy, history of philosophy, truth in the ontic meaning




Mieczysław H. Markowski – Life and academic activity

The article presents the portrait of an exceptional scholar and noble person who dedicated his whole life to academic work, faithful in serving the Church and the Fatherland. The eightieth anniversary of Professor Mieczysław Markowski’s birthday is an occasion to give him deserved expressions of gratitude and show the great heritage of his constant work.
Mieczysław H. Markowski was born in Starych Polaszkach in Pomorze. He studied philosophy and theology at WSD in Włocławek, next philosophy and classical philology at the Catholic University of Lublin. He took up academic work with the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, where he obtained a doctor’s degree in humanistic sciences based on his dissertation on the topic of Burydanizm w Polsce w okresie przedkopernikańskim. Studium z historii filozofii i nauk ścisłych na Uniwersytecie Krakowskim w XV wieku (Burydanism in Poland during the Pre-Copernican Era. A Study on the History of Philosophy and Hard Sciences at Krakow University in the XV Century).
He is an outstanding and renowned historian of philosophy, medievalist, discoverer and researcher of medieval manuscripts, academic historian and expert on the works of medieval European universities. He did research studies at the most number of libraries containing medieval manuscripts with the works of Aristotle and commentaries to these, taking on the work of cataloguing.
He discovered unknown Polish and foreign thinkers concerning research on the works of philosophy, representing a synthetic understanding of philosophical trends developed at medieval universities. He paid great attention to the person and work of Nicolas Copernicus. In the broad circle of his interests he also discovered the heritage of some contemporary thinkers and historians.
He is the promoter and ambassador of Polish sciences to Europe and the world, the author of over 650 publications, among these about 200 in foreign languages. It is important for him to present his accomplishments at many Poland nationwide and international conferences, symposiums and congresses. He contributes to promoting new academic and didactic faculty members by his many reviews of doctorate dissertations and professor habilitation theses and his professorship heritage.
His academic authority and workmanship are valued by many numerous academic bodies and organizations, granting him many awards and distinctions as well as by referring him to the fellowship of their most important members and representatives.
The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin remembers its outstanding graduate and coworker.

Key words: medievalist, history of philosophy in Poland, commentary to Aristotle’s works




The Russian Orthodox Church in the Years 1917-1925

Since 1721, following the annihilation of the institution of the Moscow patriarchy and creating the function of the over-procurator of the Council, the Russian Orthodox Church was completely subservient to the Czar’s power. The phenomenon of ceasaropapism appeared; secular authorities made the most important decisions in the life of the Orthodox Church, and it was reborn into a special national institution. At the turn of the XIX/XX centuries, many initiatives strove to change this situation and the choice of the patriarch. Thanks to overthrowing czarism and supporting the Temporary Government, in the year 1917, the General Russian Council was summoned and it chose Patriarch Tichona (1917-1925).
The Patriarch’s environment during the time of his reign in various ways tried to make the Orthodox Church independent of the Bolshevik authorities. Many dramatic events occurred as a result of mutual antagonisms. Authorities used repressive measures, they put people under arrest, murdered, exiled, took over churches, set up new church institutions, and even tried to remove Tichon from his position and replace him with someone completely submissive. The opening of relics became a heated matter, as well as disrespect towards graves of saintly people, and taking away sacred and liturgical pretioses. Death sentences in the region of Szuaj, in Mocow and St. Petersburg were to paralyze the activity of the faithful. Three of the possible successors of the patriarchy were sent to Siberia. The death of Tichon marked a new era in the attempts to replace the former ceasaropapism with a new Soviet one.

Key words: Bieławin Tichon, Piotr Polanskij, Agefangeł Preobrażenskij, Kirył Smirnow, Antonin Chrapowickij, Ewłogij Georgijewskij, Benjamin Kazanskij, Ewgenij Tuczkow, Aleksander Wwiedienskij, The General Russian Council. The Karłowacki Council, Russian Orthodox Church, ceasaropapism.



Autor: Robert Kryński
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 20.10.2010, godz. 12:56 - Robert Kryński