Spis treści



Spis treści




Ks. Marcin Kowalski: Slave of Christ, God’s Cultic Minister, Debtor of Greeks and Barbarians. Pauline Apostolic Credentials in Rom 1,1-17


Ks. Ryszard Zawadzki: Jezus – „Arcykapłan dóbr przyszłych” (Hbr 9,11) w Liście do Hebrajczyków


Ks. Janusz Mariański: Religijność młodzieży polskiej w procesie przemian

Ks. Stanisław Janeczek: Z dziejów nowożytnej dyskusji nad metodą analizy i syntezy. Kartezjusz, Pascal, Logika z Port-Royal


Marek Dudek: Beethoven a świadomość retoryki muzycznej około roku 1800 





Recenzje i omówienia


Ks. Stanisław Zięba, Ks. Janusz Mariański, rec.: Zenon Cardinal Grocholewski: Universitatea azi. Universität heute, Cluj-Napoca: Editura Fundaţiei pentru Studii Europene, 2010

Karolina Jurak, rec.: Gertrude Himmelfarb, Jeden naród, dwie kultury, przeł. Piotr Bogucki, Warszawa: Wyd. Akademickie i Profesjonalne, 2007

Ks. Mariusz Konieczny: Między sekularyzacją a desekularyzacją, rec.: Janusz Mariański, Religia w społeczeństwie ponowoczesnym. Studium socjologiczne, Warszawa: Oficyna Naukowa, 2010

Wojciech Daszkiewicz, omówienie: Osoba i uczucia, red. A. Maryniarczyk [i in.], Lublin: Polskie Towarzystwo Tomasza z Akwinu, 2010  




Z życia uniwersytetu


Diariusz wydarzeń uniwersyteckich (styczeń–marzec 2010)






Slave of Christ, God’s Cultic Minister, Debtor of Greeks and Barbarians.
Pauline Apostolic Credentials in Rom 1,1-17


In the opening verses of the Letter to Romans we find astonishingly rich and profuse presentation of the Pauline credentials. They occupy the entire epistolary praescriptio (Rom 1,1-7) and the exordium (Rom 1,8-17) where Paul in introducing himself prepares the community for the Good News he is proclaiming and tries to win their support for the future trip to Spain. The Romans’ response to Paul’s message will depend to a great extent on his initial presentation. Thus the Apostle portrays his life as dedicated entirely to Christ (doulos) who called him to be his representative (apostolos) by preaching the Gospel (1,1). The mission of spreading the Good News is a climax and the most important expression of the Pauline relation with the Lord. Its purpose is then described with the use of the cultic language as a service to God (1,9; cf. 15,15-16) which consists in preparing the Gentiles to become an acceptable offering to him. Finally, shifting to the financial metaphor Paul speaks of himself as a “debtor” not of man, though it may seem so, but of the Lord himself (1,14). Paul feels indebted to the one that revealed to him the riches of his Gospel and made him his own possession (1,1). That is why he is also eager to come to Rome to strengthen them and to share with them the Good News he was preaching elsewhere (1,11-12). From the themes exposed in the Letter to the Romans we can deduce that the Christians in the capital of the empire are actually in need of a practical teaching on the problematic issues they are facing (cf. the Jewish-Christian relations envisaged in Rom 1–4 or 9–11 and the exhortations in Rom 12–15).

One more profound conviction guides the Pauline steps to Rome. It is expressed in the two last verses of the exordium that we may with a good dose of certainty define as the propositio (main thesis) of the Letter to the Romans. The Gospel which is the object of the Apostle’s proclamation and his personal vocation constitutes also the only universal means of salvation for all mankind (1,16). This truth must have matured in Paul from the very moment of the meeting with the Risen Lord for all the years of his preaching. In the Gospel the divine plan of salvation (his “righteousness”) is revealed and operates “through faith” and bringing man “to faith” (1,17). It is hard to imagine then a more powerful motivation to preach the Good News. In the last accord of the exordium Paul puts forward the Gospel as the fundament on which he constructs his apostolic identity. The propositio in 1,16-17 opens also the way to the rest of letter where the Apostle will show how the Gospel he is preaching and living for should also profoundly shape the way of living of the Roman converts.


Key words: Paul, apostolic identity, preaching, Gospel, salvation, slave of Christ, debtor.





L’articolo affronta il problema teologico del sacerdozio di Cristo nella Lettera agli Ebrei.

Nella prima parte, viene presentata la questione delle radici del sacerdozio di Gesù, viste dall’autore della Lettera sullo sfondo del sacerdozio veterotestamentario di Aronne.

Nella seconda parte, viene esaminata la giustapposizione del sacerdozio di Gesù e del sacerdozio levitico, usata dall’autore della Lettera per mostrare, in modo magistrale, la superiorità incomparabile del sacerdozio di Cristo.

Negli ultimi due punti principali dell’articolo, l’attenzione viene dedicata al Sacrificio di Cristo – sommo sacerdote. Il primo di essi si occupa dell’indole eccezionale e specifica di questo Sacrificio, mentre il secondo, con cui l’articolo si conclude, si interessa dell’analisi dei frutti che scaturiscono dal Sacrificio di Cristo.


Parole-chiave: Lettera agli Ebrei, Gesù, sommo sacerdote, Cristo





Over the last two decades Polish young people have certainly become less religious. We have attempted to describe this decline briefly and with great approximation. The words of one of our respondents – recent secondary-school graduates – express it well: “I do not attach significance to religion, but it is present in my life.”  We may hypothesise that changes in the religiousness of young Poles will not so much tend towards secularism (atheism, indifferentism) as involve challenging the Church as both a religious and a social institution. The main feature of these changes, then, will be selectiveness (“soft” or “hard”) with regard to the doctrine of the Church rather than atheism, and departure from the Church in the institutional sense rather than from Transcendence (“I believe in God but not in the Church”).


Key words: religion, youth religiousness, secularisation, laicism, evangelisation, changes of religiousness, Church



On the History of Modern Discussion on the Method of Analysis and Synthesis.
Descartes, Pascal, Logic of Port-Royal


This paper addresses the problems of method in modern thought. It concentrates on the preference between analysis and synthesis, and shows the principal continuity of tradition initiated by Descartes. We observe in this tradition a preference for analysis understood as a method of discovery. Moreover, analysis for Descartes is also a method of demonstration and interpretation. He accepts, however, the application of synthetic method in teaching, and approves of its demonstrative importance within the acquired knowledge, especially in geometry. Pascal and the Logic of Port-Royal – that used Descartes’ solutions – approved of Descartes’ accomplishments with regard to the principles of analysis, would appreciate also the importance of synthesis. They would concentrate on the formulation of means indispensable of the axiomatic construction of learned theories, especially by making the terms in use more precise.


Key words: modern philosophy, R. Descartes, B. Pascal, Logic of Port-Royal, method of analysis and synthesis





Beethoven, who lived and worked in the times of outgoing classicism and incoming romanticism, began taking an interest in the relations between speech and sound. In this connection, he set out to broaden his knowledge of rhetoric by studying classical as well as contemporary theorists. These included, among others, J. Mattheson, G. Dreßler, or J. Burmeister, who claimed that it was impossible fully to understand a (musical or literary) work without learning the rhetorical figures, which convey the essence of the work’s actual meaning. Beethoven’s education in rhetoric at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries was difficult insofar as knowledge from this field had been almost entirely eliminated from instruction and philosophy. This forced the composer to turn to the past again (Bach, Händel, Haydn) and opt for diversity in education, ensured by his rather frequently changing teachers. Thus, Ch. G. Neefe gave him a good grounding in playing instruments, sharpened his composer’s awareness, and helped him abandon the exaggerated ideal of creating; from the Göttinger Hainbund literary group Beethoven learnt musical poetics, and the master writers of the time, W. von Goethe i J. Ch. F. von Schiller, taught him drama. Yet, the crown of those important areas of individual composition aesthetics was rhetoric, which Beethoven acquired most of all from the German poet F.G. Klopstock, already a worshipped artist at the time.

Exploring the field of rhetoric, the composer took an interest in other artists besides Klopstock – among them, J. N. Forkel. What was important to him was the richness resulting from combinations of sounds, the truth and order in tone connections, and the undeniable final goal. Such an understanding of music was very close to Beethoven. When writing his compositions, he always tried to prepare for it methodically, never leaving anything to chance.

Among the theories propagated at that time, presenting music either as instrumental imitation of singing (Ch. F. D. Schubart, Ch. H. Koch) or as meaning and effect, being a language that we speak and understand (J. A. P. Schulz), Beethoven had to work out a consensus that constituted the foundation of all his music and made the recitative performance of his work the only right and the only possible way to perform it. In other words, he had to choose a certain path to follow as an artist familiar with rhetoric. The composer must be aware of the fact that he acts as a speaker who knows his capabilities and wants to persuade the audience of something. He wants to do that by starting from some general thesis, which everyone has recognised and internally acknowledged as true. He will look into everyone, so that everyone understands it […]. This means Beethoven realised that the use of rhetorical figures in compositions results in a kind of translation of the musical work itself and its author to a higher level of consciousness. In the doctrine of the affections, the figure began to be understood as synonymous with imitation, painting, or stimulation of emotions. As such, it was on its way to becoming the basic means of musical expression. As a historically conditioned artist, Beethoven became the bridge in the development of musical rhetoric at the turn of the centuries. He realised that the knowledge of the sources and principles of rhetoric as well as the knowledge of his own unique personality gave him the possibilities that made it possible to reach the peaks of musical and human awareness. This gave him the sense of fulfilment and inner peace that he needed so much, in a way fulfilling the timeless motto inscribed on the score of Missa solemnis op. 123: “From the heart, may it go to hearts.”


Key words: rhetoric, Beethoven, theory of music, baroque, rhetorical figure, doctrine of the affections, Klang-Rede, classicism, composer, grammar, sound, word, oration, aesthetics of the affections, instrumental music

Autor: Robert Kryński
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 17.01.2012, godz. 11:05 - Robert Kryński