Spis treści



Spis treści



Themistoklis Papadopoulos: L’évolution de la politique linguistique européenne: quel avenir pour les langues minoritaires?

Wojciech Lewandowski: Moralny wymiar przebaczenia w ujęciu Maxa Schelera

Andrzej Szczypka: Podziemna Organizacja Antykomunistyczna „Krzyż” – banda rabunkowa czy organizacja niepodległościowa?

Marek Dudek: Topos muzyczny w mszach Ludwiga van Beethovena

Ondrej Štefaňak: Demograficzne i społeczne uwarunkowania typów religijności młodzieży słowackiej. Na przykładzie diecezji spiskiej




Czesław Mazurek, rec.: Wczoraj, dziś i jutro pedagogiki uniwersyteckiej w świetle twórczości Stefana Kunowskiego, red. Katarzyna Braun, Małgorzata Łobacz, Alina Rynio, Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL

Ks. Marian Radwan SCJ: Biografia kardynała Eugene’a Tisseranta, rec.: Etienne Fouilloux, Eugene cardinal Tisserant (1884–1972). Une biographie, Paris: Desclee de Brouwer, 2011

Ryszard Zajączkowski, rec.: Paweł Kochaniewicz, Jezus Romana Brandstaettera, Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL, 2010

Ks. Janusz Mariański, rec.: Edward Walewander, Postmodernizm a pedagogia katolicka, Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, 2011

Paweł Prüfer, rec.: Janusz Mariański, Katolicyzm polski. Ciągłość i zmiana. Studium socjologiczne, Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM, 201

Ks. Janusz Mariański, rec.: Stanisław Zięba, Perspektywy ekologii człowieka, Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL, 2008 




Z życia uniwersytetu


Diariusz wydarzeń uniwersyteckich (styczeń–marzec 2011)






Ewolucja europejskiej polityki językowej:
jaka przyszłość języków mniejszościowych?


Niniejszy artykuł stanowi próbę ukazania problemu obecności języków mniejszościowych w Europie. Autor rozpoczyna od definicji terminu »język mniejszościowy«, następnie zapoznaje czytelnika z kwestią polityki językowej w Europie. Kolejna część tekstu poświęcona jest prezentacji najważniejszych dokumentów wystosowanych przez Radę Europy oraz Radę Unii Europejskiej, które przyczyniły się do rozwoju idei wielojęzykowości. Autor stawia następujące pytanie: czy polityka europejska może wpływać na rozwój społeczności wielojęzykowej i wielokulturowej? Ukazując dwa przykłady języków mniejszościowych – bretońskiego i arumuńskiego, którym grozi całkowity zanik – badacz dowodzi, iż wiele czynników pozapolitycznych decyduje o przetrwaniu bądź zaniku języków rzadziej używanych. Do czynników tych należą zarówno kwestie ekonomii, jak i edukacji, będące do dnia dzisiejszego najważniejszymi elementami, jakie wpływają na istnienie danego języka.


Słowa kluczowe: Europa, mniejszości językowe w Europie, język bretoński, język arumuński, monolingwizm, multilingwizm



The Moral Dimension of Forgiveness from Max Scheler’s Perspective


The article concerns the phenomenological conception of forgiveness formulated by Max Scheler. The assumptions of Scheler’s ethics make it possible to capture the essence of forgiveness as a moral act that allows to restore the capability of experiencing values in the right way and performing morally good action to both the wrongdoer and the victim.

The response to the evil done is considered from three points of view: the wrongdoer’s, the victim’s, and that of the relation between them. The essence of the wrongdoer’s response is repentance – that is, a desire to overcome guilt as the cause of experiencing oneself as a morally evil person. Forgiveness is the victim’s response to harm, protecting them against resentment, which distorts the proper experience of values. As regards the relationship between the victim and the wrongdoer, which is destroyed by the evil done, Scheler sees just punishment as a chance for rebuilding it.


Keywords: forgiveness, guilt, harm, repentance, justice, Max Scheler



Underground Anti-Communist Organization “Cross”:
A Band of Robbers or an Independence Organization?


After the end of World War II, independence underground structures of various provenance were active in Poland, e.g. post-Home Army, nationalist, or German. Until 1947, the underground as an organized force was crushed. Simultaneously with the active independence underground, independence youth organizations existed and fought against the communist regime until 1956. Their method of struggle was leaflets, slogans on walls, weapons collection, and sabotage, e.g. destroying red flags on Labour Day. The present article discusses the forms of activity of an organization that can be neither classified as belonging to the independence underground that functioned immediately after the war, nor counted among independence youth organizations. The reason is that, fighting against the clergy through robberies, Underground Independence Organization “Cross” became a negative factor in the situation of the Catholic Church at the time, since state authorities fought the Church using administrative means whereas “Cross” targeted the clergy in order to enrich themselves easily and quickly. Besides, they hoped for impunity and believed that the communist state would not prosecute them for crimes perpetrated on members of the clergy. But for the few threatening letters sent to shock workers (socialist labour heroes), they would probably have never been captured and sentenced.


Keywords: the situation after World War II, the independence underground, Underground Anti-Communist Organization “Cross” (POA “Krzyż”), the Catholic Church, communism



The Musical Topos in Ludwig van Beethoven’s Masses


Over the years, Beethoven formed his own opinion concerning the ideals that church music should struggle towards. His focus was mainly on the relationship between word and music, in which text was not meant to be merely a superfluous addition – quite the contrary: it was supposed to clarify and emphasize the melodic layer. Understanding such a relationship was difficult for the composer, whose artistic aesthetics focused mainly on instrumental music and who was not a practising Catholic, familiar with the form of Ordinarium Missae. For this reason, when commissioned to write Masses, Beethoven resolved that he would not treat the work in a superficial manner and decided to get truly acquainted with this genre of music. Consequently, he began to explore the mysteries of religious music, study copies of plainchant performed in monasteries, and theologically interpret the meaning of every word in Mass texts. He eventually transferred the knowledge collected to the scores of two pieces: Mass in C major, op. 86 (1807), and Missa solemnis in D major, op. 123 (1824). The two forms represent different periods of Beethoven’s work, which fundamentally translates into the religious spirituality they carry, and together symbolically frame all of the composer’s emotions and experiences. The Mass constitutes Beethoven’s attempt to embrace the knowledge gained and keep it within the liturgy. Missa solemnis, apart from drawing on the material collected from predecessors, brings the composer’s individual sensibility and religiousness to the forefront, revealing them particularly in faith as well as in prayer for internal and external peace.

Beethoven always sought his own artistic path but never forgot about his antecedents, whom he tried to draw on for the best possible models, particularly in polyphony, counterpoint, the leading of individual voices, and also in the development of musical material within particular genres. That was, to him, an authentic source of specific solutions, which he could incorporate into his individual composer’s aesthetics. The borrowing of such components, deriving from the achievements of previous epochs, began to be referred to in the literature as topos – a concept that was later transferred to the field of music. In his Masses, Beethoven frequently used structures in which a specific design was visible, identical with his personal artistic experience. As he became increasingly familiar with the Mass form, Beethoven had no intention to stop at composing merely two pieces, planning to write another Mass – a requiem this time. Unfortunately, these plans were thwarted by his death, which he anticipated. Yet, the artist did not think of it in terms of ultimacy. To him, death was a real solace, a transition to a better world in which he would find true peace. The Masses he managed to write helped him carry out this personal salvation plan by pointing to the timeless message of the purity of faith and the perpetual grace of conversion, granted not only to practising Catholics.


Keywords: topos, Mass, Beethoven, religious music, word, religion, Catholicism, music genre, Missa solemnis, Mass in C major



The Demographic and Social Determinants of Different Types of Religiousness in Slovak Youth.
Based on the Example of the Diocese of Spiš


At the beginning of the third Christian millennium, it remains interesting to research, against the backdrop of current social and cultural change, the issue of how religiousness is formed in the generation now entering the world of adults. The main aim of the present study, based primarily on own empirical research from November 2006, is to present the types of religiousness found in contemporary young people as well as their demographic and social determinants. The following questions were formulated: From what demographic and social backgrounds do young people with church-oriented religiousness come? Is it true that traditional religiousness tends to be characteristic of rural youth? What influence does education have on particular types of youth religiousness? In the present study, answers to these questions are provided on the basis of own sociological research.



Keywords: religiousness, Church, young people, family, society, demography



Autor: Robert Kryński
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 17.01.2012, godz. 11:38 - Robert Kryński