Spis treści



Spis treści





Roman Doktór: Historycznoliteracki warsztat Czesława Zgorzelskiego

Jan Kłos: Zawinięta świadomość i poszukiwanie wspólnoty, czyli refleksje nad nowoczesnością

Ks. Marian Radwan SCJ: Konfrontacja Rewolucji Francuskiej z Kościołem (1789–1801)



Sprawozdania i recenzje


Amanda Krzesiak, Barbara Tryka, Weronika Winiarczyk: Retoryka dziś – szanse, możliwości, ograniczenia

Joanna Kiereś-Łach: XI Międzynarodowe Sympozjum z cyklu „Przyszłość cywilizacji Zachodu” pt. „Cywilizacje wobec multikulturalizmu”

Anna KołodziejskaSacrum w literaturze polskiej po roku 1989 – refleksja pokonferencyjna

Justyna Gnyś: Spór o piękno. Sprawozdanie z XV Międzynarodowego Sympozjum Metafizycznego z cyklu „Zadania współczesnej metafizyki” KUL, Lublin 14 XII 2012

Andrzej Szczypka, rec.: Zygmunt Woźniczka, Represje na Górnym Śląsku po 1945 roku, Wydawnictwo Naukowe „Śląsk”, Katowice 2010

Lidia Fiejdasz, rec.: Benedetto XVI, Donne nel Medioevo. Il genio femminile nella storia del popolo di Dio, prefazione di André Vauchez, postfazione di Maria Mara Monetti, Marietti 1820 [Genova Milano 2011]

Ks. Hubert Wiśniewski: Czy „pomoc starszym w cierpieniach” doczeka się regulacji prawnych?, rec.: Jacek Malczewski, Eutanazja. Gdy etyka zderza się z prawem, Wolters Kluwer Polska, Warszawa 2012

Karol Klauza: Historia w mariażu z literaturą, rec.: Krzysztof Jagielski,Saga siedmiogrodzka czyli saga rodu Sebastiana Strack-Erös, wiernego poddanego węgierskiego majestatu króla Istvàna Pierwszego i królowej Giseli, Warszawska Firma Wydawnicza, Warszawa 2012







Czesław Zgorzelski and his historico-literary approach


Czesław Zgorzelski was one of the most distinguished literary historians in Poland in the second half of the twentieth century. He was interested in the literature (particularly lyric) of the Enlightenment and the Romantic breakthrough (Wśród gwiazd liryki stanisławowskiej). However, his major contributions lie in the field of explorations of the Romantic literature, as illustrated by his sketches and studies devoted to the works by Adam Mickiewicz (O sztuce poetyckiej Mickiewicza) and Juliusz Słowacki (Liryka w pełni romantyczna). These studies mark the highest achievements of the art of historico-literary analysis in the second half of the twentieth century. Czesław Zgorzelski was also interested in the Romantic literature that appeared in Poland as well as in problems of genology. His other published works include studies on the religious literature of the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Besides, Czesław Zgorzelski was well-versed in contemporary poetry. The remarkable achievements of the Polish school of editing are largely due to his personal influence. As regards literary criticism, Zgorzelski's studies on the poetry of Kazimierz Brodziński and Adam Mickiewicz are among his highest-ranking accomplishments. Czesław Zgorzelski will be remembered, as well, as an outstanding academic lecturer who founded an original school in the fields of literary history and analysis.


Keywords: Czesław Zgorzelski, literature, history of literature, the Enlightenment, Romanticism




Self-Centred Consciousness and Searching a Community, or Reflections on Modernity


This paper attempts to analyze the category of “modernity” and its practical manifestation. I start from Charles Taylor’s three malaises of modernity among which the Canadian philosopher lists radical individualism, instrumental reason, and instrumentalization of politics. With regard to practical application of modernity understood in this way, we speak about the crisis of authority, lability of identity, change of social roles, contestation of tradition. With respect to intrumentalization, one mentions above all a naïve faith in the quantification of reality, quantification of social processes, and institutionalization of social life.

Modernity characterized in the like manner has its sources in the valuation that had taken place in the philosophy of British empiricism, in which identity was reduced to consciousness. What I am does not derive from my substantial duration, but from a project of consciousness. Here obviously appears a problem of reality as a set of open options, none of which seems to be satisfactory. Therefore the last point of this paper is a proposal to return to the experience of place, time, community, history, the experience of touching things. The lost identity must find some points of orientation.


Keywords: consciousness, history, identity, modernity, option, place, touch



The French Revolution's confrontation with the Church (1789-1801)


The Third Estate, the largest and the most differentiated in the eighteenth century France, had played no role in society. It included the peasantry, the middle class, the emerging bourgeoisie and intelligentsia. Third Estate was determined to overthrow the domination of other states - the clergy and gentry. At its municipality meetings members edited lists of demands to the king. Assembled at Vizille (1788) representatives of the Third Estate demanded convening of a national general assembly. Louis XVI acceded to this request. During the general state meeting (1789) the representatives of the Third Estate promulgated themselves the National Assembly. After a short tender connected with other deputies they pronounced themselves the Constituent Assembly. They gradually implemented a more radical conclusions reached at a local meeting. They questioned the Concordat of Bologna (1516), an alliance of the altar and the throne, the dependence of Rome in matters of religion, and the system of repaying annates to the Rome. They passed the civilian constitution of clergy by subordinate it completely to secular power. They also created new para-religious cults and rituals. They nationalized church property, even religious and monastic buildings, annulated professions, banned the recruitment of new divine calls, from 135 dioceses closed down 52 and also 4,000 parishes, created a system of bishops selection (excluding the opinion of Rome) and parsons. They were forced to swear allegiance to the revolutionary authorities. Ones who refused obedience (52 bishops and 20 000 priests) were unseated. Already in 1791, 53 new bishops were arbitrarily ordained. The schismatic Church came into being which was separated from Rome. The 70 disobedient bishops, 40 000 priests and an unknown number of nuns left the country. The rest citizens waited for terror. From these people, the Church has already beatified 869 martyrs (bishops, priests and nuns). The changing state power, after guillotining Louis XVI, especially Napoleon Bonaparte, intended to rebuild the conflicted country, both materially and spiritually depleted, which lost Europe prestige. The Church, from its side, still lamented because of the collapse of religious life. Thus, in 1801, a new concordat was included. Napoleon consented to the appointment of 60 dioceses. In large part their Ordinaries were previous pastors and theologians (32), but some also were disobedience bishops (16) and sworn (12). The nationalization of the not all sold out church property was canceled. But to rebuild the ruined church clearly lacked numerous cadres.


Keywords: the beatification of the martyrs, the diocese, the disobedience clergy, sworn clergy, concordats, civil constitution of the clergy, the nationalization of church property, the new cults, the deputies of the Third Estate, the states-general, revolutionary terror, religious orders, the general assembly of the French clergy





Autor: Robert Kryński
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 09.08.2013, godz. 10:32 - Robert Kryński