Spis treści

Streszczenia

 

Spis treści

 

 

Artykuły

 

Vittorio Possenti: The Secular State and Religion’s Contribution to a Good Society [pdf]
Paulina Sulenta: Vis cogitativa jako podmiotowa racja poznania istnienia jednostkowych rzeczy [pdf]
Ks. Tomasz Duma: Natura miarą sensu kultury [pdf]
Ks. Robert Puzia CM: Milan Machovec – marksistowski „prorok” humanistycznego dialogu? [pdf]
Wojciech Juszkiewicz: Hipoteza ostatecznej decyzji. Filozoficzne ujęcie koncepcji śmierci Ladislausa Borosa [pdf]
Peter Fotta OP: Wpływ rozumienia osoby na koncepcję kultury [pdf]

 

 

 

Sprawozdania i recenzje

 

Ks. Robert Puzia CM: Rec.: Сергій Грабовський, Відродження української філософії в УРСР (1960 –1980 рр.), Київ: НаУКМА 2014, 80 s. [pdf]
Jarosław Kozak: Tradycyjni czy tradycjonalistyczni? O praktykach religijnych w warunkach polskich, rec.: Janusz Mariański, Praktyki religijne w Polsce w procesie przemian. Studium socjologiczne, Sandomierz 2014, 392s. [pdf]

 

 

 

Streszczenia

 

Państwo świeckie a wkład religii od dobra społeczeństwa

 

Autor artykułu analizuje relację, jaka zachodzi pomiędzy człowiekiem a Bogiem i religią w odniesieniu do życia ludzkiego, tak na płaszczyźnie życia indywidualnego, jak i zbiorowego. Zwraca uwagę na głęboki wpływ religii na życie społeczne. Cel, jaki sobie stawia, to ukazać wkład religii w dobro społeczeństwa. Religia, którą analizuje pod tym aspektem, jest religią chrześcijańską. Autor rozważa rolę religii w zachodnich społecznościach, które charakteryzują się demokratycznymi i świeckimi rządami oraz silnym trendami sekularyzacyjnymi. Autor zwraca uwagę, że wielu nowożytnych myślicieli, a także i współczesnych, począwszy do Machiavellego do Hobbes’a i Marksa i ich kontynuatorów, programowo ruguje religię, tak z życia indywidualnego, jak i społecznego, widząc w niej zagrożenie dla dobra społeczeństwa. Z tej racji autor chce pokazać nieprawdziwość tych ujęć i przywołać argumenty nie tylko historyczne, ale i merytoryczne na rzecz wielkiego wkładu religii chrześcijańskiej do budowania dobra ludzkich społeczności, przywołując dyskusję, jaką na ten temat prowadzili m.in.: J. Habermas, J. Maritain, J. Ratzinger, J. Rawls, Ch. Taylor, a także C. Schmitt i inni, w której wskazuje się na ścisłe powiązanie religii z jakością życia społeczności ludzkich.

 

Keywords: state, religion, secularization, common good, philosophy, politics

 

 

The Vis cogitativa as the Subjective Reason for the Knowledge
of the Existence of Individual Things

The analyses made in the article belong to research on the problematic of man’s ability to acquire knowledge about what is individual and concrete. The purpose of these reflections is to present the subjective justification for the possibility of the apprehension of the individual thing; this is reduced to the indication of an appropriate faculty and subject in man. In classical metaphysics the particular reason, which is also called the cogitative faculty or power (vis cogitativa), is usually regarded as this reason. The author presents the interpretation of the cogitative faculty that M.A. Krąpiec made in the work Realizm ludzkiego poznania [The realism of human knowledge].

In the first she concentrates on the two orders of knowledge composed of the essence and exis­tence of being. Despite the appearance that the process of knowledge moves on two different tracks, one observes close cooperation in the action of the sensory and intellectual powers; this cooperation results in a holistic perspective of an existing individual. In the second part, the author describes what the vis cogitativa is and how it acts, and compares it with the faculty of instincts in animals (vis aestimativa). In the functioning of the human and the animal senses there is no difference with regard to the change that occurs in the organ and faculty under the influence of external stimuli. However, there is a difference in the representation of the thing that takes shape in those subjects. The specific character of the function of the particular reason is expressed primarily in the synthesis of the elements of sensory and intellectual knowledge; by that synthesis it becomes possible to read and interpret the existing individual as a realization of a certain general nature, that is, as a subject that exists in itself. Thereby also the cogitative faculty, which is the place where existential judgements concerning material things are made, is presented as the main factor that provides a foundation from the side of the subject for cognitive realism.

 
Keywords: cognitive faculty, particular reason, knowledge, cognition, cognitive realism, M.A. Krąpiec


Nature as the Measure of the Sense of Culture

 

In this article the author discusses the problem of correlation between culture and nature as a condition in the justification of rationality of the former domain. The first section presents the analyses of a naturalistic position, according to which culture is reduced to the natural world, meanwhile the phenomena that could not be expressed in the language of science are only a kind of “conceptual surplus.” Afterwards the author focuses on the opposite situation, according to which the world of nature is treated nothing but as a product of culture, while the only factor determining both nature and culture is “social practices.” The consequence of these positions is the total relativization of culture. In the second part, the author provides a realistic explanation of the relationship between culture and nature, developed on the basis of the philosophy of Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas by a Polish philosopher Mieczysław A. Krąpiec, who referring to the metaphysical understanding of the nature of being as a principle basically determining the being to its proper action from within, has formulated the philosophical conception of culture, according to which the whole culture is rational and meaningful as exteriorizing human cognition.
 
Keywords: culture, knowledge, nature, man, sense

 
Milan Machovec – a Marxist „Prophet” of Humanistic Dialogue?

The article presents the problem of understanding of the concept of the Marxist – Christian dialogue in the thought of the Czech Marxist philosopher Milan Machovec. The author of the article poses the question about the possibility of such dialogue and by taking notice to the tree aspects, he tries to give the answer to this question. The article presents first the most important stages in the biography of Machovec, then analyzes understanding of the issue of God and of the issue of dialogue in the thought of the Czech philosopher. This made it possible to outline the context, in which it is possible to answer the question about the possibility of the Marxist – Christian dialogue.
 
Keywords: Czech philosophy, Milan Machovec, God, Marxism, atheism, dialogue

 

The Hypothesis of a Final Decision. Ladislaus Boros’ Philosophical Approach
to the Concept of Death

 
Considering the question of death, Ladislaus Boros presents a hypothesis of final decision. Accord­ing to him, death opens up a possibility of the first fully personal human act. Therefore death is the existentially privileged place of conscious development, freedom, meeting with Absolute, and making a decision about eternal destiny. Boros examines his assumption from philosophical and theological perspectives. The article focuses on his philosophical approach to the problem.
The moment of death is a timeless turn, but its timelessness is a condition of the transition which exists in time. If the turn was not timeless, the two moments – of before and of after – could not overlap each other and create a situation which is comprehensive and exists in time. The starting point for Boros is the basic act of philosophy – surprise.
Boros looks for the dimension of death in the internal structure of human life. That structure can be grasped where the split of our existence is revealed. That is why Boros refers to the reflection of those philosophers who most deeply experienced the duality of our existence. Analyzing views of Blondel (the analysis of volition), Marechal (the analysis of cognition), Bergson (the analysis of perception and memory), Marcel (the analysis of love), allows to state that death plays a crucial role in human development. Boros creatively develops their achievemnts and leads to significant consequences. According to Boros, man truly comes into existence only at the moment of his death.
 
Keywords: death, moment of death, final decision, Ladislaus Boros

 

 

The Impact of Human Understanding on the Concept of Culture

 
Human capacity to knowledge and role within their culture depend primarily on whether culture itself contains so-called theory aspect that differentiates, or is potentialy being able to differentiate, between scientific, practical, artistic and religious knowledge. From a theoretical viewpoint we distinguish two neighbouring conceptions of human person. In the first instance, we focus on Cartezian-Kantian tradition within which awareness and intentional being obviates the border between the person and culture. Culture is seen as the urphenomenon of human life, as its vital necessity that allows for human life to be human. Culture is here seen as prafenomen human life and how vital necessity is a prerequisite for human life as a man Against this view, within the realistic philosophy we analyse the facticity of human existence and acts. Through actions the human being-as-person transcends nature, society and his own being. Human person as a subject is manifesting themselves in all spheres of culture. He exists autonomously, as a concrete individual being – the substance “in itself”. Culture does not exist autonomously. As an intentional being is a relational entity, whose primary mode of existence generates our intellectual act of knowledge.
 
Keywords: being, the human person, culture, being intentional
Autor: Robert Kryński
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 04.02.2016, godz. 14:48 - Robert Kryński