Church and Law 1 (14) 2012: 195-208

Votum separatum in a process of search for the objective truth


Marcin Królik


Relation between the truth and the sentence has the significant meaning in canonical processes. Process in fact is an instrument for finding the truth in assumed controversy. Final sentence is the result of the litigation proceedings, which is normal way finishing dispute. In the Code of Canon Law of 1983, the legislator introduces in this context a new legal instrument, votum separatum. Judge in a collegiate tribunal has the right and obligation to pronounce of a sentence in compliance with his conscience, that is achieved with moral certitude. In the situation when the other judges made a different decision by an absolute majority of votes, judge who is convinced in his conscience about wrong decision can give a separate vote.


Słowa kluczowe: votum separatum, dyskusja sędziowska, pewność moralna, wyrok

Key words: votum separatum, judges discussion, moral certitude, sentence