RH 54-55 (2006-2007) z. 3: Filologia klasyczna


Jan Maarten BREMER


Piorun Zeusa we wczesnym greckim micie
i w hymnie Kleantesa




W okresie archaicznym kosmiczny fenomen pioruna był dla Greków nieomylnym znakiem niszczącej mocy Zeusa, używanej przezeń do eliminowania nieprzyjaznych sił we wszechświecie, a także pozbywania się tych spośród śmiertelników, którzy ważyli się przekroczyć granice swojej ludzkiej kondycji. Homer, Hezjod, Pindar i Ajschylos poświadczają, że takie było powszechne przekonanie im współczesnych. Potwierdza to również malarstwo wazowe. W III wieku przed Chr. w ramach stoicyzmu rozwinęło się nowe, pozytywne postrzeganie pioruna, stoicy mianowicie głosili, że piorun to narzędzie Zeusowej władzy we wszechświecie, ogień zaś jest podstawowym składnikiem wszechrzeczy i określa ich strukturę oraz zachowanie. Autor artykułu dowodzi, że (1) owa stoicka doktryna była obecna już u presokratycznego filozofa Heraklita oraz że (2) najwymowniejszy swój wyraz znajduje w hymnie do Zeusa autorstwa stoickiego filozofa Kleantesa.


Przełożył Stanisław Sarek



Słowa kluczowe: piorun, grom, ogień, logos.

Key words: lightning, thunderbolt, fire, logos.






Image of the Beyond in Plato's Dialogues




The paper is a penetrating analysis of the character and function of the eschatological myth. Plato crowns his three dialogues: Gorgias, Phaedo, and Republic with various images of this myth.

The theoretical basis for this analysis is L. Brisson's Introduction à la philosophie du mythe, vol. I: Sauver les mythes (Paris: Vrin, 2005) and his solutions on the meaning and function of myth in Plato's discourse. We assume that Plato understood myth as a discourse on the kind of reality that cannot be verified. Despite that the myth can be true, inasmuch as it is compatible with logical argument, concerning forms knowable by reason or the senses. Therefore, in all three dialogues the eschatological myth is subjected to an analysis in its strict relation to its preceding logical argument and functional concurrence has always been found between them. Despite the variety of images in the three representations of the myth, the same symbolical function has been found. They illustrate the interpenetrating cosmic, moral, and social orders based on the pillars of justice.


Translated by Jan Kłos



Słowa kluczowe: Platon, dialogi Platońskie: Gorgiasz, Fedon, Państwo, mit eschatologiczny, obraz Zaświatów, pośmiertny los dusz, figura sprawiedliwości.

Key words: Plato, Platon's dialogues: Gorgias, Phaedo, and Republic, eschatological myth, image of the Beyond, posthumous life of souls, figure of justice.






Spatial Approach in the Bacchae of Euripides




The presented world in the Bacchae of Euripides is extremely rich and extended, therefore it calls for a broader space than the place of action itself, understood as a space available for the recipients of this play in visual perception. The scenic action of the Bacchae takes place in front of the royal palace, but this is not the only place of dramatic events. The theme of the tragedy is not only the history of Pentheus, but also the dissemination of the cult of Dionysus as a universal religion. Accordingly, the places of the cult in Greece and Asia Minor, above all the mountains of Cithaeron, are constantly brought to mind. In those places the Thebanese Bacchantes worship this god with singing and dancing. The poet transfers also the tragic ending of the action to the mountains of Cithaeron: Pentheus' torn apart by his mother and the attendant Thebanese women. The author describes the character of the space referred to in the Bacchae, showing the way of its presentation on the stage, and describes its functions in the text.


Translated by Jan Kłos



Słowa kluczowe: Eurypides, Bachantki, tragedia grecka, przestrzeń przywołana.

Key words: Euripides, the Bacchae, Greek tragedy, spatial approach.






Paintings and Art Collections in Strabo's Geographica




The article's premise is a Stoic-based idea of the work of art, featured in the Eikones of Philostratus the Elder. The pair of authors examines the issue of whether, and to what degree, Strabo (himself also an adherent to Stoical philosophy) shares similar views on the work of art, or whether he is partial to the view prevalent in ancient Greece, which consisted in a kind of naïve awe at the execution of ideal likeness (as exemplified, for instance, by the approach of the heroines of Herondas' mimiambus IV).

A thorough analysis of all descriptions of works of art contained in Strabo's work leads to the conclusion that Strabo's was not impressed by "barbarians' art". In fact, he begins to pay any attention to works of art as late as in Book 8, describing Greece's sundry lands. Strabo's views on the work of art fall into the following categories: 1. a mere note of the object combined with a description of its single feature, usually its size; 2. a thoroughgoing description of works of illustrative character (an antique Biblia Pauperum); and 3. a description of peregrinations of works of art after the latter were seized by the Romans. The last category appears to be of particular interest to Strabo, perhaps due to his view that the Greeks were culturally superior to all Romans (see Daniela Dueck, Strabo of Amasia, London and New York, 2000).

In conclusion, it appears that Strabo was a dilettante in his reception of the works of art. No element of his views can be construed to prefigure the later Stoic theory of Philostratus the Elder. In Strabo's work, the works of art serve to adorn the world and to vivify his often very dry geographical descriptions; their existence was made merely to exemplify the superiority of the Greek spirit over the remaining world.


Summarised by the Authors



Słowa kluczowe: Filostrat Starszy, stoicka teoria dzieła sztuki, Strabon, Geographica.

Key words: Philostratus the Elder, Stoic theory of the work of art, Strabo, Geographica.




Kazimierz KORUS


The Comic Function of Ekphrasis
in Theocritus' Pharmakeutria




According to the author, a proper interpretation should have a genological character. It means that one should accept the obvious truth that this work is a mime. Therefore it has its distinctive features. It is also harmoniously combined with the requirements of lyrical song. It is designed to arouse to laughter, or rather perhaps smile (gelôtopoieín), and not to move with wistful song of a complaining girl, a fact that has up to know been assumed by modern scholars in all earnestness. The ekphrasis of magic examined by Fritz Graf (1995) confirms the presumptions of interpretation. This scene (l. 1-63) is comic in character, let it suffice to mention the comic tirades of the maid and four (I mention only the principal ones, not all of them) mode to arouse laughter, i.e. diastréphein to alêthes, paráchroun, heteróschêmon, pleonázein combined with aúxêsis (amplificatio or gradatio ad absurdum). Similarly, they have been used in the second part of the work in combinations between the first and the third, the second and the fourth. This in an unambiguous manner confirms from the genological point of view that Pharmakeutria belongs to mime as a literary genre.


Translated by Jan Kłos



Słowa kluczowe: mim, Teokryt, komizm ekfrazy Pharmakeutria.

Key words: mime, Theocritus, comic character of the ekphrasis Pharmakeutria.




Sylwester DWORACKI


The Pictures and Their Functions in Greek Novel




In Greek Novel as well as in the early periods of Greek literature are known descriptions of pictures made by painters or by other artists. This paper is concentrated mainly on the paintings that are the starting points Longus' Daphnis and Chloe, and Achilles Tatius' The Adventures of Leucippe and Cleitophon. A special attention is given to the beginning Heliodorus' Aethiopica, where though the opening scene is not a description of a painting, nevertheless it is presented like a painting. Also other paintings are discussed which occur in the above mentioned novels. In conclusion, a stress is put on the novelty of Heliodorus who introduces to Greek novel a new way of using description of paintings, and different objects, and also creates scenes similar to paintings.

Summarised by Sylwester Dworacki



Słowa kluczowe: romans grecki, obraz, obrazowanie.

Key words: Greek novel, picture, description of paintings.




Krystyna BARTOL


Painting - Poetry: Plutarch on Simonides' Apophthegm




In the article the author proposes to examine Simonides' famous dictum promoting the link between poetry and painting as presented by Plutarch within his Moralia. Three main problems have been discussed:

1. Plutarch's opinion concerning the authorship of the saying,

2. Are the Plutarchean passages the verbatim quotations of Simonides?,
3. The meaning of the apophthegm.

It seems that Plutarch favoured Simonides' authorship of the saying. His treatment of the apophthegm in some places of his work as a common saying as well as the attribution of it to one from among the sophoí do not contradict the Simonidean authorship. It highlights the widespread approval of the saying.

We may assume that Plutarch came quite close to the verbatim quotation of Simonides although there are the discrepancies in the lectiones of the quotation. The serious obstacle preventing us from treating the Plutarchean citation as genuine Simonidean words is the fact that poetry is called poiêtikê here which is completely unsuitable for the poets of the early period.

Simonides in his famous saying about the relationship between the arts intended to highlight the importance of imitation in painters' and poets' art. Dio of Prusa additionally noticed the difference between the means and ways of imitation in both kinds of the arts. It does not seem, however, that also Simonides made them distinguishable and that Plutarch intended to emphasize this very aspect of the association of painting and poetry.


Summarised by Krystyna Bartol



Słowa kluczowe: korespondencja sztuk, poezja - malarstwo, Simonides, Plutarch.

Key words: correspondence of the arts, poetry - painting, Simonides, Plutarch.






Presentation of Statues (Andriantopoiika)
in the New Posidippus




Posidippus' Andriantopoiika (epigrams 62-70 Austin-Bastianini), in accordance with their subject heading, deal with statue-making. Nearly every epigram contains phrases alluding to sculpting. One of the poet's chief concerns was to show the criteria of the perfect art. The section begins with a direct appeal to sculptors to imitate ‘these works' (probably those presented by Posidippus in the cluster that follows) and to leave aside ‘ancient rules for larger-than-life-size statues'. In one poem (63) the poet proclaims a ‘canon of truth', i.e. of realism, as the desirable style of sculpture. Miniaturism and polish are also highly valued. Although Posidippus praises other masters too - including older ones - the precedence is given to Lysippus, the favourite sculptor of Alexander whose presumed lawful successors were the Ptolemies. The section as a whole certainly gives a valuable clue to the principles of Hellenistic art.

Most of these poems can be classified as ekphrastic. Their form and underlying conception prove that Posidippus had an ambition to create a varied type of ekphrasis, in its content considerably independent of the described work of art. In the Andriantopoiika, the poet inserts, among other things, a historical comment (68), an anecdote (66), and literary allusions (64). His formal addressees include the spectator (64, 67), the artist who created a given work of art (65), and even the work or its elements themselves (64). However, it is always the reader who remains the intended addressee of each poem. The poet neither simply presents the sculptures nor states the plain facts connected with them. His epigrams serve specific ideological purposes, as they promote the cultural policy of the Ptolemies, consciously adopting the aesthetic preferences of Alexander.


Summarised by Jerzy Danielewicz



Słowa kluczowe: poezja grecka, kultura hellenistyczna, epigram, Posejdippos.

Key words: ancient Greek poetry, Hellenistic culture, epigram, Posidippus.






Novelistic Motifs of Philostratus' Vitae Sophistarum




In his Vitae Sophistarum (Lives of the Sophists) Philostratus the Elder many times draws on the "novelistic motifs," embroiling his heroes in them. For instance, we find several of them in the biography of Herodes Atticus (II, 1). This is a story about a wise muscleman Agathion, a story about the sources of Herodes' legendary wealth, or a story about the misfortunes of his family. The story about the death of Polemon of Laodicea (I, 15) is similar to the story of Labienus in Seneca the Rhetor (Contr. X, praef. 7). Scopelianus' adventures (I, 21) remind us the scenes from the New Comedy. Philostratus appears in the Lives of the Sophists as a master of words, who seems to be more interested in art than historical truth. Therefore one should be very careful when dealing with his text.


Translated by Jan Kłos



Słowa kluczowe: druga sofistyka, Filostratos, Żywoty Sofistów.

Key words: Second Sophistic, Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists.






The Figurative Techniques
in the Poetry of Sidonius Apollinaris




Sidonius' poetic works, especially those more elaborated, in their structural dimension depict a mythological-ekphrastic composition, similar to so-called Alexandrian and neoteric epyllion. One notices here a spectacular dimension of poetry, typical of late antique aesthetics. This dimension is manifested in definite figurative techniques, especially the excessive use of mythological metaphor, together with numerous ekphrases. Their presence has from the very beginning been very meaningful in epic poetics; it was used to obtain one of the basic categories, the so-called aesthetics of the reception of a literary work - the impression of intuition of the presented plot (enárgeia - evidentia). Decisively, the most interested examples of the application of mythological metaphor in the function of figurative techniques are found in Sidonius' emperor's panegyrics. They are related to the manner in which goddess Roma is presented, the goddess present in all three panegyrics. Its creation is most fully rendered by the allegorical message of mythological personification in the real-historical contents of the panegyrics. Each of the portraits of Roma reflects, by way of an allegory, Sidonius' definite political intention and it is an artistic mode to present his personal political ideas.


Translated by Jan Kłos



Słowa kluczowe: Sydoniusz Apollinaris, ekfraza, metafora, personifikacja, alegoria.

Key words: Sidonius Apollinaris, ekphrasis, metaphor, personification, allegory.






Two Ancient Traditions to Represent the Human Body
in Mediaeval Art




In the basic system of visual arts the human body is subject to the first interpretations, artistic and semantic evaluations. In the studies on art it was the principal criterion of style and artist's workshop. In the most ancient research on early medieval art and the mature Middle Ages the stylistic definitions of the human body were assumed to be the basis of the classification of art, its relationship with ancient tradition or its various divergences, which were given pejorative names. The classical character of divergences from that model in the context modelling the body allows us to establish the chronology of works from the times of the fall of pagan art up to the new forms of Christian art.

An interesting study on the human body (not on nakedness) help us to take a closer look on how Roman art, especially French sculpture, was established in the circle of Benedictine orders. Starting from the classical model of Mediterranean art it created a new understanding of the body in accord with the strict text of the Bible, which - instead of corporeal unity - stressed the importance of its members. An analysis of particular excerpts from the Bible, providing the sense of the hip, the knee, the eye, the head, and the hand allow us to explain the analysis of the body into its members often called deformation. Some examples of monumental sculpture in Moissac, Cluny, and Wezelay unveil the sense of this deformation in the Judaic, not Roman, context of understanding the body. Italy and its influence have retained the Mediterranean, Roman traditions in the shaping of the human body. Thereby they continued the classical model for Gothic art and sculpture in the cathedral milieus. The body and the wealth of its corporeality is shown by sculpture returning to the Roman model again, thereby unveiling the scale of psychological values, such as smile, depicted in the sculptures in Reims, Naumburg, and Lincoln. We may notice in medieval art two patterns by which to show the body: classical and Judaic that comes from the Bible.


Translated by Jan Kłos



Słowa kluczowe: ciało, rzeźba, tradycja klasyczna, tradycja judaistyczna, cielesność, uśmiech.

Key words: body, sculpture, classical tradition, Judaic tradition, corporeality, smile.




Dorota ŚLIWA


"The Mouth of the Holy Desire".

Metaphorical Expressions of Desire in the Mystic Language
of St. Catherine of Sienna




The goal of the paper is twofold: to outline the problems of the language of mystics in the light of linguistic research and a detailed analysis of the metaphorical expressions of the holy desire in the mystic language of St. Catherine of Sienna. The linguistic research on mystics were initiated in a more methodical way by J. Baruzi (1931), and were synthetically elaborated by G. Pozzi (1988). Having discussed the specific semantic of the words in mystic discourse, an analysis of the expressions of the holy desire is presented. It confirms that the linguistic sign is anchored in mystical experience, and the mystic's discourse has a specific character with its own dynamism and narration, and its respective didactic goal. The paper also shows literary values of the mystical texts, being part of literature on spirituality.

Translated by Jan Kłos



Słowa kluczowe: dyskurs, język mistyczny, leksykologia, metafora, retoryka, predykaty.

Key words: discourse, mystic language, lexicology, metaphor, rhetoric, predicates.






"The Wise Adviser".

The Structural and Genetic Analysis of the Narrative Plot
in the Histories of Herodotus




The article consists of three parts: the first which illustrates the particular structure of the plot stated in the title, the second which explains the origin of the structure of the plot and the third which summarizes the whole content.

In the first part, after analyzing 26 examples of the plot taken from Herodotus' Histories, it is possible to sketch the structural pattern of "the wise adviser" plot. It depicts the so-called patterns of history that are executed in the characters and events within the narrative. Moreover, those patterns are characteristic of the Herodotean narrative as such. They can bring to mind the technique of "ring-composition" discerned in the Homeric poems the Iliad and the Odyssey and also in the Histories of Herodotus.

The second part of the article concentrates on the origin of the structure of "the wise adviser" plot. That is, it attempts to give the answer on the question of how and why the plot was moulded the way it was. This problem is explained by the Havelock's "oral rules" applied to the oral work and composition and also by the Ong's "memory rules". On their basis it is allowed to name the Herodotean narrative as the "oral narrative" that meets the expectations of the oral communication in the strict narrative genre.

The third part summarizes the preceding parts and draws some conclusions.


Translated by Iwona Domańska



Słowa kluczowe: Herodot z Halikarnasu, Dzieje, fabuła, wątek, struktura, narracja, kompozycja oralna.

Key words: Herodotus of Halicarnassus, Histories, plot, structure, narrative, oral composition.






Las noticias de Pseudo Dioscórides sobre las plantas




El artículo examina las noticias sobre las plantas incluidas en el De herbis femininis, uno de los herbarios más populares de la alta edad media. Transmitiendo a su lector informaciones necesarias a que halle e identifique plantas medicinales y sepa usarlas para curar numerosas enfermedades de distintos órganos, el desconocido autor del tratado, al que se suele llamar Pseudo Dioscórides, no sólo se ocupa de sus numerosas virtudes medicinales, sino también describe su constitución, hábitat, señala distintas especies, menciona sus nombres sinonímicos y a veces incluso trata de establecer su etimología. Con lo qual parece evidente que el analizado herbario proporciona datos de carácter farmacológico y botánico a la vez.


Resumido por Tatiana Krynicka


Słowa kluczowe: Pseudo-Dioskorides, rośliny, zielniki, starożytna medycyna, starożytna botanika.

Palabras claves: Pseudo Dioscórides, plantas, herbarios, medicina antigua, botánica antigua.

Key words: Pseudo-Dioscorides, plants, herbals, ancient medicine, ancient botany.






Komposition der Rede
in Anlehnung an die Griechische Schule der Rhetorik




Die Frage nach, was sich in einer Rede befinden soll und wie die einzelnen Teile des Inhalts geordnet werden müssen, war präsent schon in der frühen Rhetorik und galt immer als der Interessengegenstand in diesem Bereich des Wissens.

Seit den legendären Korax und Teisias, über die Lehren der ersten Sophisten, Isokrates und Platon, Vertreter der zweiten Sophistik, Aristoteles, bis zu Hermagoras und Hermogenes, war die Redestruktur der Gegenstand von rhetorischen Untersuchungen und Besprechungen. Zuerst bediente man sich der sogenannten „natürlichen Ordnung der Dinge" (ordo naturalis), also der angeborenen und oft unaufgeklärten Art und Weise von Schilderung eines Sachverhalts. Später teilte man die Rede in einzelne Teile, unter denen als fundamental Darlegung des Sachverhalts und Beweisführung gelten, was bei Aristoteles próthesis und pístis genannt wird. Diesen zwei Grundelementen wurden noch andere zugegeben und das waren die Einleitung (prooímion), Erzählung (diêgêsis), Vorwürfe (diabolê), Das Entkräften von Argumenten des Gegners (lúsis), die Fragenstellung (erôtêsis) und der Redeschluss (epílogos). Die Zahl dieser Elemente ist jedoch bei verschiedenen Autoren unterschiedlich. Was noch betont werden soll, ist, dass die Redestrukturen nicht im Widerspruch zueinander stehen. Sie entwickeln die von den Vorgängern ausgearbeiteten Konzepte.


Zusammengefasst von Jarosław Nowaszczuk



Słowa kluczowe: grecka szkoła retoryczna, budowa wypowiedzi, kompozycja mowy, Koraks i Tejzjasz, Retoryka Arystotelesa, części mowy, argumentacja retoryczna, schemat wypowiedzi, naturalny porządek wypowiedzi, artystyczny porządek wypowiedzi.

Schlüsselwörter: griechische Schule der Rhetorik, Redestruktur, Komposition der Rede, Korax und Teisias, Aristoteles' Rhetorik, Teile der Rede, rhetorische Argumentation, rhetorisches Redemodell, ordo naturalis - natürliche Ordnung der Dinge, ordo artificialis - künstliche Wortordnung.

Key words: Greek rhetorical school, construction of speech, speech composition, Corax and Teisias, Aristotle's Rhetoric, parts of speech, rhetorical argumentation, rhetorical speech model, ordo naturalis - natural order of things, ordo artificialis - artificial word-order.




Małgorzata GÓRSKA


Syntactic Schemes of Nominal Groups in Latin
Distinguished on the Basis of the Connotation
of Nominal Lexems




The paper seeks to present a tentative list of syntactic schemes, according to which a certain type of nominal groups in Latin is constructed. These are groups with constitutive elements in the form of nominal lexems, having connotative properties. Connotation here is understood as a systematic property of lexems which consists in the fact that they open "empty places" (positions) to be filled in the text by definite (subordinate to them) elements called supplements. Like in other languages, the connotative properties in Latin is depicted by three types of nominal lexems. These are nouns derived from verbs, i.e. above all nomina actionis (e.g. reading - what?, by whom?) and nomina agentis (e.g. reader - of what?) and nouns derived from adjectives, i.e. first of all nomina essendi (e.g. lenght - of what?). The third type is composed of some nouns derivationally non-motivated. We find here among other things "relational" names of persons (e.g. son - whose?) or names of the parts of a certain whole (e.g. shore - of what?). The nominal lexems mentioned here may open one, two, three, or even four "empty places." In the text they are filled with supplements in the form of nouns in the dependent cases, propositional phrases, constructions accusativus cum infinitivo, or even the whole sentences. The list contains ten syntactic schemes which are a symbolical inscription of the types of syntactic structures carried out in the texts by the Latin nominal groups. Such kind of schemes may be supplemented by a description of nominal groups in Latin, as the connotation of nominal lexems as a mechanism of making groups has not been, as it seems, taken into consideration up to now.


Translated by Jan Kłos



Słowa kluczowe: konotacja składniowa, konotacja łacińskich leksemów rzeczownikowych, grupa nominalna, łacińskie grupy nominalne, schematy składniowe łacińskich grup nominalnych.

Key words: syntactic connotation, connotation of Latin nominal lexems, nominal group, Latin nominal groups, syntactic schemes of Latin nominal groups.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 30.03.2009, godz. 11:24 - Stanisław Sarek