Zenon UCHNAST (1998). Prężność osobowa a egzystencjalne wymiary wartościowania // Personal Resilience versus the Existential Dimensions of Evaluation. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 7-27.


Summary: The act of valuation is multidimensional. Values are evaluated not only in the aspect of what “is pleasant,” but also in the aspect of what “is my desire,” “is a challenge for me and I feel obliged to put it into practice.” These three aspects are taken in the terms of V. Frankl’s logotherapy and A. Maslow’s theory of developmental needs, which not so much “push” but rather “pull” as a challenge to treat the world in its suchness, to a better insight into the reality, growth of tolerance and respect for others, to openness to positive interpersonal relations. Maslow describes two ways in which we can approach valuation. They have been operationalized in the terms of characterologically interpreted personal resiliency (PR), which in psychometry corresponds to J. Block’s Ego-Resiliency. A hypothesis has been put forward that the persons with a high PR are characterized by a greater ability to valuation along all the three dimensions and they differ from the persons with a low PR, especially as regards the evaluation of the same values in the aspect: “It is a challenge for me and I feel obliged to put it into practice.” That hypothesis has been confirmed on the basis of the analysis of the empirical data from the study on 153 subjects at the age of 17-18. The study was carried out by means of my own factor version of Maslow’s Security-Insecurity Inventory and the list of 60 values which were assessed separately on the 5-degree scale in view of the three aspects under question. It has been stated that the persons with a high PR assess 60 values in the aspect of “it is pleasant”; they are essentially different from the control group only as regards the assessment of the three values: family, moral good, and dignity of the person. Now as regards the assessment of the same list of values in the aspect “it is my desire” the group of a high PR ranked 10 values as being essentially higher: easiness in adjustment, finding one’s place in the world, personal dignity, social position, carrying out life tasks, abiding by norms and obligations, care about good opinion, respect, spontaneity and carrying out of tasks. Now as regards the assessment of the same list in the aspect of “it is a challenge for me and I feel obliged to put it into practice” the persons with a high PR considerably higher (in relation to the control group) evaluate the following 14 values: moral good, personal dignity, respect, abiding by the norms and obligations, justice, friendship, carrying out life tasks, help to other people, finding one’s place in the world, interests, wisdom, care about good opinion, to be an individuality, and the joy of life. An increase in the number of differentiating values along the dimensions “it is my desire” and “it is a challenge...” is interpreted as an indicator of a greater openness and readiness in the persons with a higher PR to value along all the existential dimensions. In like manner it is confirmed that the postulate to analyze valuation in all the three existential dimensions is right. The correlation between the increase of motivational dynamism and the level of PR is pinpointed, a correlation which conditions an adequate functioning in the interpersonal relations and the development towards emotional and social maturity which D. Goleman defines in terms of emotional intelligence.


Oleg GORBANIUK (1998). Kryteria przynależności narodowej w ocenie młodzieży polskiego pochodzenia ze Wschodu studiującej w Polsce // Criteria of National Membership in the Perception of the Polish Youth of Eastern Origin Studying in Poland. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 29-42.


Summary: The purpose of the empirical research on the Polish youth from abroad studying at the moment in Lublin, its finding and discussion was to attempt at an answer the following questions: 1) what significance do the subjects ascribe to some selected criteria which decide about their national membership? 2) what is their governing principle when they assess the importance of those criteria? 3) what are the psychosocial conditions of that assessment?

The differing traits, making up a group of necessary and sufficient conditions for a man to be a member of a given nation, are the following: genealogical origin, knowledge about the national culture, language, religion (denomination), private choice, place (country) of birth or residence, place of baptism, data about the parents’ nationality as they are contained in the certificate of birth. It has been stated that the group of subjects under study, while defining the significance of the factors deciding about national membership, evaluated them basically along two dimensions. The first one can be interpreted as a dimension of the trait of being a member of a community versus the trait of belonging to a territory. The second dimensions may be defined as genealogical determinism versus freedom of choice of national membership.

No relationship has been found between the ranking and such variables as a permanent place of residence (town, village), sex and year of studies at the level of statistic significance. Greater or lesser differentiation in the ranks of particular criteria depends on the nationality of the mother and father, national self-identification of the person under study, the language of communication in the family, the kind of relationship with the surrounding during their stay in Poland and concomitant frustration on the grounds of national issues or religion.


Stanisława TUCHOLSKA (1998). Obraz siebie a osiągnięcia w nauce szkolnej uczniów środkowych klas szkoły podstawowej // Self-concept and Success in School Among Pupils of Mid Primary Classes. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 43-55.


Summary: The studies referred to in this paper seek to grasp the relationship between self-concept and school results. The studies contained 120 pupils (58 girls and 62 boys) from the 4th and 5th forms of primary school. The subjects aged between 11.2 years to 12.9 years.

Taking into account the school results, three groups of subjects have been distinguished:

Gr. I (N = 40) consisted of pupils who had difficulties at school;

Gr. II (N = 40) consisted of mediocre pupils;

Gr. III (N = 40) consisted of pupils who obtained very good marks at school.

Self-concept was formulated according to the Polish version of Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale (P – HCS – CS).

The difference between the mean scores of the experimental groups is statistically significant almost in all the scales. They point that the pupils who have difficulties in studies have a low global self-concept and low assessment of particular self-concepts, except the Happiness and Satisfaction Scale. Now the pupils whose marks were either good or very good had in proportion better scores in self-concept, both in global and particular dimensions.

The scores point to a considerable interrelation between results in studies and self-concept at mid school-age.


Justyna ISKRA (1998). Stopień otwartości na doświadczenie a obraz siebie młodzieży artystycznie uzdolnionej // Degree of Openness to Experience and Self-image Among Artistically-Talented Adolescents. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 57-71.


Summary: The paper is based on reports from a study on the degree of openness to experience and self-concept of artistically-talented adolescents. Openness to experience is, according to Rogers, the principal condition for the formation of a mature personality, which carries into effect its potentialities, creatively solves inner conflicts, and accomplishes goals.

Two methods were used in the study: P.T. Costa’s and R.R. McCrae’s NEO Personality Inventory, a test which allowed to select a group of adolescents with a low and high openness to experience, and Gough’s and Heilbrun’s Adjective List ACL. The latter was used to describe a real and ideal self-concept. The NEO Personality Inventory applied in the study makes up a measuring tool. It was used to assess the main dimensions of personality: neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

The scores point to co-variability between openness to experience and self-concept, both real and ideal, of the adolescent group under study. The subjects of a high openness to experience are characterized by activity and spontaneity, they tend to independence, have broad interests, search after what is new and unknown, and approach reality in a creative manner. The subjects of a low openness to experience control their action, avoiding spontaneity, seek safety and that which is well-known, tried and certain. They eagerly submit to others’ leadership. The scores from the ideal self-concept are especially interested, the concept being most often in accord with a socially-accepted pattern. The results show that adolescents with a high openness to experience wish to raise above the fixed patterns and want to decide who they would like to be and what they want to achieve in life. Openness to experience is an essential element of self-concept formation in its emotional, intellectual and social aspect.


Maria OLEŚ (1998). Asertywność u dzieci i młodzieży: Problemy teoretyczne i metody pomiaru // Assertiveness in Children and Adolescents: Theoretical Problems and Methods of Measurement. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 73-95.


Summary: The paper deals with the theoretical issues related with the problems of assertiveness and its studies in children and adolescents. Assertiveness is treated as one of the basic social skills, which makes it possible for a person to act in conformity with his or her own interest, to defend his or her rights without unnecessary fear or to express one’s own beliefs, emotions and thought in a frank, open and direct manner, without encroaching upon others’ rights. Assertive behaviour is linked with a good mood and mental well being. Now aggressiveness or submissiveness are opposite to assertiveness. Many psychological methods draw on to this distinction, including the methods of self-assessment.

A. Bandura’s social-cognitive theory is especially useful in explaining assertive behaviour. It lays theoretical foundations for the programmes of training social skills.

A review of methods includes: R. Deluty’s Children’s Action Tendency Scale (CATS), L. Michelson’s and R. Wood’s Children’s Assertive Behaviour Scale (CABS) as adapted by M. Oleś, Adolescent Assertion Expression Scale (AAES) by J. Connor et al., and T. Ollendick’s Children’s Assertiveness Inventory (CAI).

Methodological problems of assertiveness measurement have been discussed on the basis of several examples of scales, with a view to their possibilities and limitations, and how they can be used under Polish conditions.


Ryszard KLAMUT (1998). Potrzeba sensu życia a obraz siebie // The Need for Sense of Live Versus Self-concept. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 97-117.


Summary: The paper attempts to show the relationship between the need for sense of life versus self-concept. Following Frankl, the need for sense of life is understood as the basic power motivating man for action, for openness to sense and to carry out values. Now self-concept is a group of traits which an individual calls their own or themselves.

Two test were used in the study: SONG and ACL. Crumbaugh’s scale, SONG, defines the need to reach the sense of life in the situation when it is missing. High scores in the test point out that the sense of life has been lost and the need to reach it has increased. Now low scores show a proper way in which to satisfy the need under discussion. ACL was used to test self-concept and the level of self-acceptance.

A group of 107 subjects was examined (51% men and 49% women), all of them having their own families and working, aged 24 to 40.

The results confirmed a hypothesis that there are differences as to self-concept in people characterized by various levels of the need for the sense of life. The subjects with a low need define themselves in most positive terms, and are able to carry out independently their own goals and values. The subjects with a mean level of the need tend to contact other people, thus carrying into effect their sense of life. The subjects with a high level of the need tend to defend their status quo.


Wiesława OKŁA, Stanisława STEUDEN (1998). Psychologiczne aspekty zespołu wypalenia // Psychological Aspects of the Burnt-out Syndrome. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 119-130.


Summary: Long-term tension when we attempt to solve difficult situations, or to satisfy one’s own or others’ expectations, may lead to the burnt-out syndrome. The structural factors of that syndrome are the following: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, disturbances in adjustment. The authors of the present paper discuss the risk factors of the burnt-out syndrome, attributing essential significance to the compensatory and motivational factors. They give their own proposal as to the risk factors of the burnt-out syndrome in relation to supporting persons.


Agnieszka KULIK (1998). Problemy emocjonalne młodzieży zajmującej się astrologią // Emotional Problems of Adolescents Dealing with Astrology. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 131-146.


Summary: The adolescent period is sometimes especially important when solving the adolescence crisis and forming a sense of identity. There are attitudes which are not conducive to this process, among other things, passive-dependent attitudes or magi thinking, which can be found in astrology. Dealing with astrology, may bring on many consequences both for the cognitive and emotional spheres. Meanwhile, one observes that adolescents are more and more interested in various forms of magic practice.

Findings from empirical research on a group of adolescents dealing with astrology, allow to notice certain dangers connected with those practices, e.g. worse adjustment, lower level of inner integration, higher inner tension, lower emotional balance and others. Such symptoms point out that there are various emotional problems which make it difficult to solve the crisis of identity.


Joanna MACH (1998). Patologia psychiczna a religijność w ujęciu Antoine Vergote'a // Mental Pathology versus Religiosity According to Antoine Vergote. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 147-165.


Summary: According to Antoine Vergote, humanity is being put into existence on two basic dimensions: obligation and desire. Both dimensions may be affected by pathology. Now pathology may lead to obsessional neurosis. Religious neurosis of fault arises due to transference of obsessional neurosis into the sphere of religiosity. Pathology of desire, which gives rise to hysterical neurosis, easily affects people’s religiosity. The latter being deformed by mental pathology virtually ceases to depict an image of man’s encounter with the Personal God, but is rather a way to cope with an inner conflict. Antoine Vergote, a prominent psychologist of religion, with great insight describes in his works the influence which mental pathology bears on religiosity. The present paper is a short, yet coherent, review of the author’s views on the matters in question.


Jerzy SZYMOŁON (1998). Specyfika przeżycia religijnego // The Specific Character of Religious Experience. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 1, 167-180.


Summary: The paper seeks to outline the specific character of religious experience. Having first explained the concepts “experience” and religion”, the author goes on to carry out a psychological profile of religious experience. Treating theologico-philosophical considerations as his source of inspiration and external criterion of reference, he narrows the understanding of the concept “religious experience” and distinguishes it from a quasi-religious experience. Doing that, he uses numerous suggestions with which psychological literature abounds. The proposed lists of criteria with which to assess how authentic a religious experience is, has an open character and makes up of invitation addressed to psychologists to supplement it further.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 30.05.2013, godz. 08:07 - Karol Juros