ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


 

Piotr ZIELIŃSKI (2007). Wpływ barw otoczenia na reakcje fizjologiczne i zachowanie – przegląd badań i próba oceny // Effects of environmental color on physiological reactions and behavior: A review and critical evaluation Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 10, 2, 11-25.

 

Summary: There are many theoretical approaches in color psychology, describing how color of environment influences human physiology, emotional reactions and behavior. This knowledge could potentially be of various practical uses, however, it is still lacking a strong empirical base. This article presents a review of studies concerning effects of environmental color and color of objects on human responses and behavior. It also attempts to evaluate these findings and point out most common problems that should be dealt with in further studies.

Key words: color, hue, color psychology, effect of environment.


  

Kinga TUCHOLSKA (2007). Osobowościowe korelaty wyznaczników kompetencji temporalnych – interpretacja wyników analizy kanonicznej// Personality correlates of temporal competence: The interpretation of canonical analysis results Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 10, 2, 27-57.

 

Summary: The objective of research was to establish the range of interdependence between temporal competence (as measured by Temporal Competence Inventory developed by Uchnast and Tucholska) and selected psychological variables measured by Questionnaire of the Sense of Coherence (SOC-29) developed by Antonovsky, Adjective Check List (ACL) by H. G. Gough and A. B. Heilbrun, Revised NEO Personality Inventory developed by P T. Costa and R. R. McCrae. The procedure of canonical analysis was used to analyze the data collected during the study from a group of 239 students. It follows from the presented analyses that the way of experiencing time and the person’s attitude to time in its three dimensions remain in evident linkage to intrapsychic and interpersonal functioning. Therefore, temporal competences can be treated as predictors of efficient and adequate functioning.

Key words: temporal competence, sense of coherence, self-concept, “Big Five”.


  

Sławomir ŚLASKI (2007). Zbigniew ZABOROWSKI, Związki form samoświado- mości z sytuacjami i ich wpływ na atrybucję // The associations of self-awareness with situations and their impact on attribution Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 10, 2, 59-70.

 

Summary: The self-awareness theory (CF) developed by Zaborowski makes a distinction between self-awareness content and its processing forms or modes. The content is divided into external and internal one, and can be processed in any of four self-awareness forms: individual, defensive, outer and reflective. Self-awareness operates in a dynamical way, and is functional with respect to personality and external conditions. The forms of self-awareness organize, order and integrate the self-awareness content and in doing so they influence behavior. This paper shows the relationships between the CF theory (reflective, individual, external form) and attribution.

Key words: self-awareness, attribution.


  

Dariusz KROK (2007). Psychologiczna analiza perswazji w przekazie informacji religijno-moralnych // Psychological analysis of persuasion in communicating religious and moral information Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 10, 2, 71-92.

 

Summary: Persuasion research implies that the impact of verbal and nonverbal messages on listeners’ attitudes may be moderated by the relevance of the issue to their personal values, i.e. involvement. The aim of this article is to present the process of persuasion which takes place while communicating religious and moral information. It concentrates on psychological aspects of communication including vocal styles, argument quality, and involvement in religious issues. It is hypothesized that people process both verbal and vocal information depending on the level of their involvement. In the experiment participants listened to a speaker who presented a persuasive message. Verbal content of the message (strong or weak arguments) and vocal style of the speaker (partnership and domineering) varied. Besides, the participants were analysed in two groups characterized by high vs low involvement. The results suggested that the level of involvement moderated attending to the verbal and vocal content. High involvement participants engaged in extensive and careful processing (central route), whereas low involvement participants were not scrutinizing carefully the presented information (peripheral route). The former group was far more receptive to the verbal and vocal content than the latter.

Key words: persuasion, attitude change, communicating religious and moral information, processing verbal and vocal information.


  

Małgorzata SZCZEŚNIAK (2007). Wdzięczność w świetle wybranych koncepcji psychologiczno-społecznych // Gratitude in the light of chosen social-psychological theories Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 10, 2, 93-111.

 

Summary: Although gratitude has privilege to be one of the most bonding realities regulating people’s relations and as such has been highly valued in philosophical and theological literature, in the field of psychological science for a long time it was not considered as a topic worthy of consideration. The status of gratitude as a neglected and weak emotion was gradually overcome thanks to various theorists who explained the phenomenon of gratitude and clarified the essential mechanisms of its development. The present article is primarily an attempt of concise historical presentation of gratitude in the light of chosen social–psychological theories, which were elaborated by such authors as: Heider, Weiner, Maslow, Ortony, Lazarus, Emmons, McCullough, Fredrickson, Buck, Wojciszke and Kemper. Theoretical accomplishments of the above-mentioned authors and other topics related to conceptualization of gratitude explicate complexity and multidimensional character of this construct. Historical presentation is preceded by linguistic and philosophical outline concerning gratitude.

Key words: gratitude, complex emotions, attributions, intentionality.


  

Anna HUNCA-BEDNARSKA (2007). Zastosowanie J. E. Exnera „indeksu izolacji” do diagnozy schizofrenii // The application of J. E. Exner’s isolation index in the diagnosis of schizophrenia Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 10, 2, 113-132.

 

Summary: Difficulties schizophrenic people have in social interaction are exhaustively documented in professional literature. The difficulties stem from the nature of the disease itself but they may also be the result of stigmatization and lack of support from social environment. In his comprehensive study and interpretation of Hermann Rorschach’s test, J. E. Exner introduced the concept of the “isolation index”. The index provides information concerning the outlooks on and reactions of the examined people to their social environment. J. E. Exner did not link the level of the isolation index to schizophrenia. The difficulties schizophrenic people have with social interaction make it justifiable to examine whether the values of the “isolation index” are higher among the ill people than among healthy ones – this constitutes the main of aim of this research. Ninety-five subjects (40 women and 55 men) suffering from schizophrenia and 68 healthy controls (33 women and 35 men) were examined. The criterion for inclusion into the patient group was the medical diagnosis of schizophrenia based on ICD-10. The health group criteria were: the lack of psychiatric treatment, good functioning in work or school and lack of serious psychological problems. Three working hypotheses were formulated: 1. the levels of the “isolation index” in the schizophrenic group will be higher as compared to the healthy group. 2. higher values of the “isolation index” in the group of ill people will be to a greater extent linked to “personality variables” manifested by such characteristics as reduced interest in other people, and lower emotional reactivity (withdrawal). 3. higher values of the “isolation index” will be associated with lower general emotionality, and this correlation will be stronger in the schizophrenic group. It was revealed that the “isolation index” was not linked to the disease. The group of schizophrenic patients did not differ in this respect from the group of healthy subjects. Significant interrelations have been observed, however, concerning the sex of the examined subjects, their state of health and some particular thematic categories constituting the index. Two thematic subcategories were isolated on account of their symbolical character (stone and water). The subcategories significantly differentiated the ill and healthy men. Hypothesis 2 was not confirmed unambiguously, also the direction of the relationship was found as previously expected. Hypothesis 3 was not confirmed, quite the opposite, there was no difference between the ill and healthy groups in their general emotionality and the relationship between the index value and emotionality was opposite to the expected one. The aforementioned results were interpreted as an effect of the style of perception and the style of interpreting the blots. 

Key words: the Rorschach test, schizophrenia, social functioning, emotionality.


  

Beata ZARZYCKA (2007). Skala Centralności Religijności Stefana Hubera // Will Centrality of Religiosity Scale Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 10, 2, 133-157.

 

Summary: Stefan Huber (2003) developed the Centrality of Religiosity Scale to measure both the global centrality and five dimensions of religiosity as identified by Ch. Glock and Y. Stark (1965, Stark, Glock, 1970): religious beliefs, prayer, religious experience, rite and interests in religious issues. This article presents the Polish version of Huber’s scale (C-15). The scale was translated and back-translated according to standard requirements. Preliminary indicators of validity and reliability were calculated on the basis of the results obtained from 402 subjects. The results confirmed high discriminative power of the items as well as high homogeneity and stability of the subscales. The global index of centrality was also found to have high psychometric properties. Theoretical validity of the scale was established by means of factor analysis and internal consistency coefficient. The findings confirmed the equivalence of the Polish version of the instrument to the original German version and adequacy to the pre-assumed theoretical model. The convergent and divergent validity was established by means of correlations with other instruments measuring religiosity, i.e. Intensity and Centrality of the Religious Attitude (W. Prężyna), Religious Crisis Scale (W. Prężyna), Relationship to God Scale (D. Hutsebaut), and Postcritical Beliefs Scale (D. Hutsebaut). The obtained psychometric indexes confirmed high validity and reliability of the presented instrument.

Key words: religiosity, centrality of religiosity, religiosity measurement.


  

 

ARTYKUŁ DYSKUSYJNY // FOCUS ARTICLE


  

Piotr JAŚKOWSKI (2007). Czy psychologia polska przetrwa do 2026 roku? // Will Polish psychology survive till 2026? Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 10, 2, 159-172.

 

Summary: In the opinion of the author, Polish psychology as a scientific discipline is charactarized by a negative phenomen on, which remarkably hinder its development, which I named self-marginalization. It indicates the limitation of scientific communication merely to the Polish scientific circle by publishing original research contributions mostly in Polish-language journals.

Key words: scientific policy, psychology.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 30.05.2013, godz. 07:44 - Karol Juros