Wacław BĄK (2008). Teoria ukierunkowań regulacyjnych E. Tory Higginsa // E. Tory Higgins’ regulatory focus theoryRoczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 1, 7-38.


Summary: The regulatory focus theory proposed by E. Tory Higgins differentiates between two distinct strategies for self regulation: (1) promotion and (2) prevention regulatory focus. The former is concerned with ideals, advancement, aspirations, accomplishments, and growth, while the latter – with oughts, obligations, responsibility, protection, and safety. The paper presents the main theses of the theory and results of selected studies concerning the role of regulatory focus in cognitive processes and decision making, different aspects of goal achievement, and also in experiencing emotions, assessment making and value judgments. The last part of the paper discusses strong and weak points of the theory as well as its associations with other cognitive models of self-regulation. It is also proposed to put the regulatory foci in a broader context of personality and temperament variables.

Key words: self-regulation, regulatory focus, Higgins.


Katarzyna SKRZYPIŃSKA (2008). „Dokąd zmierzam?” – duchowość jako wymiar osobowości // Where do I aim at?” – Spirituality as dimension of personality Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 1, 39-57.


Summary: Searching for and description of personality dimensions is one of fundamental problems in contemporary psychology. Researchers most often pay attention to the importance of the questions about meaning in life because they play an essential role in critical moments in human life, when functioning of personality is disordered. Spirituality is related to looking for the meaning of everyday life events. Up to now it has been studies as an element of religiousness or a transcendent dimension of human experience. However, as many results suggest, spirituality may be a separate dimension of personality, moreover, very important in the process of fulfilling the needs for safety, meaning in life, emotional and cognitive needs, etc. Existential and spiritual intelligence play a major role in when analyzing and resolving problems of meaning and values. Additionally, rational and emotional intelligence is also used in this process.

Key words: personality, spirituality, spiritual intelligence, existential intelligence, life meaning.


Przemysław BĄBEL (2008). Efekt placebo: fakt czy artefakt? // Placebo effect: Fact or artifact? Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 1, 59-76.


Summary: For over 40 years since the moment when H.K. Beecher published The powerful placebo in 1955, it has been universally accepted that the placebo effect is a fact and it is very powerful. At the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries the papers expressing doubts concerning the existence and power of the placebo effect were published. They started a debate about the existence and the power of the placebo effect. The aim of this paper is to review and sum up the debate which has been carried on for 10 years among placebo researchers and to find an answer to the question whether the placebo effect exists and if so whether it is powerful enough to be of any clinical significance.

Key words: placebo effect.


Anna HUNCA-BEDNARSKA (2008). Poczucie wyobcowania u rodziców osób chorych na schizofrenię paranoidalną // A sense of alienation among the parents of people suffering from paranoid schizophrenia Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 1, 77-94.


Summary: Parents of 31 schizophrenic patients and parents of 21 healthy controls were examined with the projective Rorschach Test. Both groups were compared with respect to levels of the isolation and egocentricity indices. These two aspects had been chosen because they refer to attitudes and feelings associated with social relationships. Difficulties in communication, social withdrawal and diminished prosocial attitudes have often been reported in families of schizophrenic people. The group of parents with an ill child had a higher level of the isolation index. Individual components of the content involved in the isolation index were examined. It was revealed that the parents of ill children, and the fathers in particular, talked about clouds seen on the blots significantly more often than the other group. The parents of ill children, and the fathers in particular, perceived human figures significantly more rarely. This may reflect the fact that the feeling of isolation springs from personality and not from an external situation. The level of egocentricity did not differ in the two groups. The problem of the psychological interpretation of the content and features of expression was also discussed. The need for more humanistic research on meanings was pointed out.

Key words: schizophrenia, schizophrenic patients’ parents, the Rorschach Test, emotionality, egocentricity.


Piotr PRÓCHNIAK (2008). Stosunek do śmierci osób uprawiających ekstremalne sporty // The attitude towards death in sport extreme risk takers Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 1, 95-104.


Summary: The objective of the study was to analyze the attitude towards death in sport extreme risk takers and the control group. The sample consisted of  83  sport extreme risk takers (mountain climbers, parachutists, wind – and kitesurfers, and  divers) and 134 persons not engaging in any risky sports activity. The Attitude Towards Death Scale was administered to the subjects. The scale consisted of six dimensions: death anxiety, the preferred type of death, the belief about controlling death, contemplation of death, faith in life after death and paranormal beliefs about death. The following four variables discriminated best between the extreme risk takers and control group: the preferred type of death, the belief about controlling death, contemplation of death and paranormal beliefs about death.

Key words: risk taking, attitude towards death.


Agnieszka LIPIŃSKA-GROBELNY (2008). Wybrane determinanty stylów zachowań komunikacyjnych przedstawicieli handlowych  // Select determinants of styles of communicative behaviours of sales representatives Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 1, 105-126.


Summary: The four styles of communicative behaviours of sales representatives and their personality and organizational determinants are verified as the cardinal purpose of this article. The group of 188 sales representatives was researched with the apply of five valid and reliable techniques: CPI by Gough, EPQ-R by Eysenck, I-E Scale by Rotter, QOC by Kolb, and MSS by Merrill & Reid. The results indicate numerous significant determinants (both personality and organizational as well) of styles of communicative behaviours. The most common styles of communicative behaviours among sales representatives was expressive style of communication, the least common – analytical style of communication. The most important determinants appeared to be: Extraversion-Introversion, Intellectual Efficiency, supportive or intermediate organizational climate, and Domination.

Key words: personality and organizational determinants, styles of communicative behaviours.





Piotr SZAROTA (2008). Wielka Piątka – stare problemy, nowe wątpliwości // The Big-Five: Old problems and new concerns Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 1, 127-138.

Summary: The article discusses the present status of the five-factor model of personality. A brief history of the Big Five research has been outlined and the main controversies and problems presented. The article focuses on cultural universality of the model, controversies pointing to the number and interpretation of factors, and the diagnostic utility of the model.

Key words: Five-Factor Model, personality, personality assessment.





Piotr SZAROTA (2008). Patrząc w przyszłość // Future prospects Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 1, 173-178. 


Summary: The author identifies three main themes, which seem crucial in the present discussion: the cultural universality of the Five Factor Model, its diagnostic utility and possible directions of the future research. Regarding the universality of the model it has been pointed out that there is apparently no consensus between researchers themselves on that matter. The proponents of the lexical approach to personality like Goldberg or De Raad are much less eager to claim universal status of the Big Five than Costa, McCrae and other proponents of “psychometric tradition”. However as the author concluded the universality and cultural relativity may not necessarily be seen as the mutually exclusive concepts, at least in the personality research. Regarding diagnostic utility of the model, author softens his former critical stance and points to the diversity of the new instruments, which are also available in Poland. Regarding the future of the Big Five research it has been pointed that apart of the new lexical projects or cross-cultural comparisons there should be even more stress put on the development of the model into the advanced and sophisticated personality theory.


Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 29.05.2013, godz. 08:12 - Karol Juros