Jerzy GOŚCINIAK, Michał MOCEK (2008). Narcyzm i patologia narcystyczna w ujęciu psychologii self Heinza Kohuta // Narcissim and narcissistic pathology in Heinz Kohut’s self psychology Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 7-26.


Summary: This article presents basic concepts and assumptions of self psychology developed by Heinz Kohut. The authors show major shifts in the evolving theories of narcissism and narcissistic pathology, according to Kohut's bipolar self structure and dual-axis theory of its development.

Key words: bipolar self, dual-axis theory, narcissism, narcissistic personality disorders.




Olga SAKSON-OBADA (2008). Rozwój Ja cielesnego w kontekście wczesnej relacji z opiekunem // Development of the body Ego in the context of the early relationship with a caregiver Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 27-44.


Summary: This article analyses the impact of the early relationship with a caregiver on functioning of the bodily Ego. A definition is proposed of the bodily self as a concept which involves functions (sensing, interpretation, regulation) fulfilled by the bodily Ego and the contents on which it works (sensations, bodily needs, emotions and sense of physical identity). Development of specific bodily experiences was also discussed with emphasis on their associations with the abilities of an early caregiver to support the functions ascribed to the bodily Ego. The importance of bodily experience representations was highlighted for the sense of physical identity which is the phenomenological criterion of the functionality (i.e. strength) of the bodily Ego.

Key words: bodily Ego, sensation, bodily experience, sense of physical identity.




Stanisława TUCHOLSKA (2008). Zjawisko hazardu patologicznego i jego uwarunkowania // Pathological gambling and its determinants Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 45-68.


Summary: Gambling is now a popular lawful activity among people around the world. Due to recent changes of legal regulations concerning gambling, access to gambling has become more widespread and, as a result, an increase in the prevalence of pathological gambling has been noted. Therefore, an urgent need for better understanding of the phenomenon of pathological gambling among health-care specialists becomes evident. In this field, such concepts as compulsive, pathological or problem gambling are often treated synonymously. Pathological gambling is a complex phenomenon. Traditionally, the definitions of gambling have been constructed basing on the assumptions of economic or social repercussions rather than taking into account the process or phenomenon of gambling itself. However, clinicians focusing on negative consequences of the gambling behavior, developed typologies and worked out the definitions that may prove beneficial for more adequate operatio-nalizing this concept. A critical review of the literature showed that familial/genetic, sociological/demographics (e.g. age, gender, ethnicity, forms of gambling), individual (e.g. an individual's personality, biochemistry, cognitions, and psychological states) and religion/spirituality factors may be implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling.

Key words: gambling, pathological gambling, risk factor.




Małgorzata STYŚKO (2008). Wpływ charakterystyk sprawcy i ofiary na przypisywanie sprawcy moralnej odpowiedzialności // The impact of the perpetrator’s and the victim’s characteristics on moral responsibility attributions Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 69-86.


Summary: In accordance with the model based on defensive responsibility attribution and stereotyping, as well as the findings from previous studies (Stysko, 2006; 2007), in certain circumstances, unbiased or favourably biased judgements about the perpetrator from a negatively stereotyped group (the annihilation effect) can be explained by using a cognitive strategy which serves reducing a high sense of threat and regaining a lost sense of control. This article presents study based on the assumptions of this model. One hundred and seven high school students took part in the experiment using a computer procedure. When the victim was similar to the observer, the participants attributed a similar degree of responsibility to the perpetrators both not belonging and belonging to the negatively stereotyped group (jock hooligans). When the victim was presented as not similar but equally emotionally engaging (a child), the jock hooligan perpetrator was attributed even less responsibility than the non - jock hooligan perpetrator.

Key words: responsibility attribution, guilt attribution, stereotype, relating an event to Self, victim, annihilation effect.


Sylwiusz RETOWSKI, Maria KAŹMIERCZAK (2008). Osobowościowe predyktory zachowań etosowych w organizacji // Personality predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 87-104.




Summary: The present study investigated the degree to which empathy, locus of control, and self-efficacy were related to two types of organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB): those directed toward other individuals (OCB-I) and those directed toward the organization (OCB-O). Data were collected from a sample of 313 employees representing various professions. Two types of OCB were measured by means of the experimental versions of the scale developed on the basis of qualitative data. The Polish version of the questionnaires measuring empathy in work, locus of control and self-efficacy were also used. Results of regression analysis indicated that only empathy in work and self-efficacy were good predictors of OCB. Neither general locus of control nor locus of control in work were good predictors of any kind of OCB. The correlation analysis performed separately for different occupational groups revealed significant differences. In general, the controlled personality variables were better predictors of OCB-I (R2 = 32%) than OCB-O (R2 = 22%). Empathy in work turned out to be the strongest OCB predictor. Significant differences between different occupational groups suggest that the idea of conducting studies on homogeneous professional groups is worth considering.

Key words: OCB, empathy in work, locus of control, self-efficacy.




Andrzej FALKOWSKI, Alicja GROCHOWSKA (2008). Wpływ emocji na ocenę i pamięć reklamy: badania w paradygmacie wstecznego kształtowania pamięci // The effect of emotions on evaluation and memory of print advertisement: An empirical study in the backward framing paradigm Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 107-133.


Summary: The study consisted of two parts. In the first part, the influence of emotions on evaluation of advertisement and on memory of brand claims has been examined. The second part was designed in the backward framing paradigm: memory distortions of ad evaluation and of brand claims have been examined in the conditions of weak and strong emotions, depending on the strength of emotions elicited by the ad. The study was designed in the 2x3 paradigm. Two contexts of ad perception: ad-directed and brand-directed processing, and three ads: autobiographical appealing to positive memories, autobiographical appealing to negative memories, and non-autobiographical, were used. Another form of advertisement was used as a post event information. The results showed the influence of autobiographical ad on emotions elicited by the ad and on evaluation of ad and brand. Memory of ads eliciting stronger emotions was less distorted than in the case of ads eliciting weaker emotions.

Key words: memory distortion, emotional network, advertisement.




Weronika ŻYBURA (2008). Zachowania komunikacyjne polityków - kobiet i mężczyzn // Communication behaviours of female and male politicians Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 137-158.


Summary: The aim of the study was to compare the communication strategies of women and men in politics. Two different aspects of communication behaviors were investigated: the issues taken up by politicians (Study 1) and their self - presentation strategies (Study 2). One hundred twenty political statements of men and women affiliated with different political parties were studied (60 statements in each study). The results of these studies show that there were no significant differences between men and women in politics with respect to the issues they take up and the offensive self presentation strategies they show. However, in the case of the assertive self presentation strategy, a trend of between-groups differences was observed. Men tended to use assertive self presentation strategies to a greater degree than women.

Keywords: sex roles, politics, communication behaviors.




Sławomir ŚLASKI (2008). Osobowościowe i społeczne problemy uczestników więziennej terapii uzależnienia od alkoholu − „Atlantis” // Personality and social problems of the participants   of the penitentiary therapy of alcohol addiction − “Atlantis” Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 159-174.


Summary: This study tested a general hypothesis that the participants of addiction therapy programme in a penitentiary institution reveal more psychological, social, legal and medical disorders than addicts who are not imprisoned. One hundred eighteen prisoners with alcohol dependence who participated in therapy were investigated as well as a control group of 29 alcohol addicts participating in therapy at large. The Adjective Check List and interview techniques were used. The following personal problems were identified among the imprisoned participants: they committed criminal offences against family, property and murders, the revealed a very limited self-assessment with respect to their interpersonal and family problems, with violent behaviour or somatic problems. They revealed strong defensive behaviour and self-control, low ambitions and little perseverance in pursuit of alcohol abstinence. Future research should take into account wider diagnosis of the personality structure - the entire emotions sphere and the cognitive characteristics of the persons undergoing addiction psychotherapy in prison.

Key words: alcohol addiction, prisoners.




Marcin WNUK (2008). Porównanie egzystencjalnych oraz religijno-duchowych aspektów funkcjonowania studentów i osób uzależnionych od alkoholu // Comparison of existential and religious-spiritual aspects of students' and alcohol addicts' functioning Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 11, 2, 175-189.


Summary: The aim of this study was to examine whether students and alcoholics anonymous differ in several aspects of religiosity (religious orientation, strength of religious faith, frequency of prayer and frequency of church attendance, religious coping), frequency of spiritual experiences and meaning of life. An additional aim was to verify if there a relationship exists between religiosity, frequency of spiritual experiences and meaning of life. The sample consisted of 70 participants of Alcoholics Anonymous from Poznań and 53 students from Eugeniusz Piasecki University School of Physical Education in Poznań. The following tools were used: Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire, The Age-Universal I-E Scale, Religious Coping Scale, Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, Purpose in Life Test, one-item scales regarding frequency of prayer and frequency of church attendance. In comparison to students, alcoholics anonymous had stronger religious faith, stronger intrinsic and personal extrinsic motivation, prayed and went to church more frequently. They were also characterized by more frequent using positive religious coping and reported more frequent contact with the transcendent reality. Among students, positive relationships between spiritual experiences and meaning of life, spiritual experiences and religiosity as well as frequency of prayer, extrinsic-social motivation and meaning of life were found.

Key words: spirituality, religiosity, meaning of life, students, alcoholics anonymous.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 16.01.2013, godz. 15:41 - Karol Juros