ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


  

Władysław Jacek PALUCHOWSKI (2010). Diagnoza oparta na dowodach empirycznych - czy potrzebny jest „polski Buros"? // Evidence-based assessment - do we need "Polish Buros"?   

Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 7-27.

 

Summary: The aim of this paper is to describe the practice in psychological assessment and diagnosis in Po­land. This article focuses on two key themes in the on evidence-based assessment. The first one is application of EBM in psychology. The second is activity and achievement of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. The implications of these themes for the future of psychological assessment practice are discussed.

Key words: evidence-based assessment - do we need "polish Buros"?, assessment, EBA, EBM.


  

Andrzej PANKALLA, Joanna GROŃSKA-TURUNEN (2010). Sisu - fińska emocja kulturowa i jej mitoanaliza w koncepcji R. Shwedera // Sisu - Finnish cultural emotion and its myth analysis according to R. Shweder's concept. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 29-53.

 

Summary: The study aims to examine the meaning of the Finnish cultural emotion sisu ("perseverance", "courage", "stubborn", "determination") and reads it through the paradigm of R. Shweder's cultural psychology of emotions. The reading of emotions as culturally constructed scripts and applying myth analysis (Shweder, Haidt, 2005) should yield a new framework for examination and adequate comprehension of cultural emotions. The study attempts to expose that by decomposing an emotion­-script into its constituent narrative slots, one can make visible the cultural underpinnings of emo­tions even such indefinable as sisu.

Key words: sisu, cultural psychology, Richard Shweder, finnish cultural emotion, psychology of myth, myth analysis.

 


  

Andrzej JASTRZĘBSKI (2010). O pewnej próbie stworzenia metapsychologii. Adrian van Kaam post mortem // On an attempt at constructing a meta-psychology. Adrian van Kaam post mortem. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 55-72.

 

Summary: 

The recently deceased Adrian van Kaam CSSp is considered to be one of the founders of phenomenologico-existential approach in psychology. His works stand at the beginning of humanist and existential psychology in the United States. Dialogue between psychology and philosophy, one of his postulates, is a common characteristic of this period in the development of psychology. While similar to V. Frankl's multi-dimensional anthropology, Van Kaam's research project appears to have been much more ambitious. His aim was to construct a meta-theoretical foundation for all the essentially different psychological currents in order to enable fruitful dialogue among them. How­ever, Van Kaam's proposal was not welcomed enthusiastically by the psychological community, and the author himself remains unknown to the general public, being only occasionally mentioned in manuals of the history of psychology. This paper is an attempt to provide the Polish audience with a more exhaustive presentation of van Kaam's scientific heritage in the fields of psychological the­ory, psychotherapy, and scientific spirituality as well as to explain why his research has not become an integral part of the history of psychology.

Key words: phenomenology, existentialism, psychological anthropology, philosophy, human being.

 


 

Jolanta TOMCZUK-WASILEWSKA (2010). Przegląd narzędzi do pomiaru poczucia humoru // Review of sense of humor measures. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 73-100.

 

Summary: The goal of this article is the presentation of sense of humor measures. A review of the methods is preceded by theoretical introduction including humor theories and main issues concerning the de­velopment of humor measurement tools. The sense of humor methods are presented in order guided by their progress: from qualitative instruments, such as diaries and interviews, through question­naires, humor appreciation and humor assessment measures, humor creativity tools, description and self-description instruments and alternative methods. The last part of the article deals with methodo­logical issues resulting from humor research. It concerns the selections and valuation of methods as well as those aspects of humor which are left out in contemporary approach.

Key words: sense of humor, sense of humor measures, sense of humor questionnaires.

 


  

Oleg GORBANIUK, Jolanta DŁUGOBORSKA (2010). Atrybucja przyczyn sytuacji kryzysowych w przedsiębiorstwach // Causal attribution of crisis situation in companies. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 101-123.

 

Summary: 

Manipulation of descriptions of eight crisis situations and three factors (consensus, distinctiveness, congruity) was carried out within 4-factor experiment to check how they influence the perception of negative events in a company. Four hundred students took part in this research. The results showed a clear tendency to seek causes of a crisis situation in business entity without any connection to rational assumptions. The key factors that were to impose the direction of causal attribution were: the specific character of crisis situation and information about a congruity. Information about con­sensus of the event was the most irrelevant in the process of attribution. The outcomes of the re­search were confronted with normative expectations which result from Kelley's covariation model.

Key words: causal attribution, consensus, distinctiveness, congruity, Kelleys cube, corporation, crisis, experiment.

 


  

Krystian BARZYKOWSKI, Agnieszka LEŚNIAK, Agnieszka NIEDŹWIEŃSKA (2010). Rola wskazówek i przekonań w długotrwałej pamięci cen // The role of cues and beliefs in long-term memory for prices. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 125-144.

 

Summary: 

Several studies have indicated that people tend to underestimate prices from recent years. Two experiments were conducted to analyze factors that are responsible for the systematic bias. It has been assumed that the tendency results from misremembering the time of the price as well as gene­ral beliefs about stable and significant price increases. As expected, the tendency was diminished when participants were provided with temporal cues and did not emerge for the product that was considered to become cheaper. The results accord well with the associative theory of memory for prices (Kemp, 1999), the encoding specificity principle (Tulving & Thompson, 1973), as well as retrieval conceptualizations in which implicit theories of change are stressed (Ross, 1989).

Key words: prices, memory, temporal cues, theory of change.

 

 


  

Magdalena SZUBIELSKA (2010). Zdolności wyobrażeniowe niewidomych dzieci w zakresie skaningu i rotacji kształtu dotykanych obiektów // The spatial imagery in blind children: Abilities to scan and rotate tactile objects' shapes. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 145-160.

 

Summary: 

The aim of the research was to explore the ability of spatial imagery in blind students, particularly their abilities to scan and mentally rotate tactile objects' shapes. The results demonstrate that the older the blind children are, the easier it is for them to differentiate shapes, but only in case when one of two objects is rotated. It may mean that the ability of mental rotation is developing during the school years, and the spatial scanning ability is achieved at an earlier age. It was also stated that identification of objects' shapes is more accurate in an aligned condition than in a rotated condition. It suggests that the mental rotation process is more complicated than the scanning process for blind children to perform.

Key words: the blind, spatial imagery, scanning, rotation, tactile perception.

 


  

Dariusz KROK (2010). System wartości a poznawcze i społeczne wymiary religijności // The values system and cognitive and social dimensions of religiosity. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 161-182.

 

Summary: Understanding the complex relationships between values and religiosity may provide a better under­standing of what is the role of values in social life and what it means to be religious. Values express what people believe to be good or bad, and what they think should or should not be done. Similar aspects of normative behaviour can be found in religion which can imply mutual connections. This article focuses on the issue of relationships between values and religiosity from cognitive and social perspectives. The study involved 247 subjects (women and men) aged 18-56. Three scales were employed to conduct the research: Post-critical Beliefs Scale, Centrality of Religiosity Scale, Scale of Scheler's Values. The results confirmed strong relations between the values system and religios­ity dimensions. Both cognitive and social dimensions of religiosity are connected with value sys­tems. People who are more committed to religion attribute relatively lower importance to values that express the motivations to follow one's sensuous hedonistic desires, and the motivation to care about vitality. At the same time they attribute relatively high importance to sacred values both in the aspects of religion and secularity. Regression analyses results revealed an interesting issue regarding internal structure of religious life: values are related to social dimensions of religiosity stronger than cognitive ones.

Key words: values system, religiosity, cognitive dimensions of religiosity, social dimensions of religiosity.

 


 

Aleksandra PILARSKA (2010). Cechy samoświadomości a nasilenie symptomów depresji // Characteristics of self-consciousness and intensity of depressive symptoms. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 13, 2, 183-199.

 

Summary: The issue of this article is to examine the relation between forms of self-consciousness and depres­sion. It presents studies of a normal sample of 76 students and clinical sample of 15 patients with depression. Self-consciousness Scale (Zaborowski, 1989) has been used to assess forms of self-consciousness and Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (Radloff, 1977) has been used to measure depression. There are two main goals of the research: 1) distinction of typological groups of healthy controls in context of self-consciousness variables; 2) description of changes in intensity of depressive symptoms in relation to the types of self-consciousness structure differenti­ated. The cluster analysis has shown 3 types of self-consciousness structures which differ with respect to the all forms of self-consciousness as well as to the level of depressive symptoms. It has also turned out that the most depressive self-consciousness structure differentiated was similar to the one of patients suffering from depression.

Key words: paradox of self-consciousness, self-consciousness, depression.

Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 12.12.2012, godz. 21:23 - Karol Juros