ARTYKUŁ DYSKUSYJNY // FOCUS ARTICLE


   

Jadwiga M. RAKOWSKA (2011). Użyteczność kliniczna interwencji psychoterapeutycznych wspartych empirycznie // Effectiveness of empirically supported psychological interventions. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 1, 7-22. 

 

Summary: Empirically supported treatments are rigorously based on experimental research. Applicable impli­cations of these treatments are limited due to low external validity. Naturalistic research is required to increase external validity. Two methodological strategies of clinical utility evaluation of such treatments in natural settings are discussed. A proposal for client-focused research as a means of providing a framework that could potentially be used by researchers and clinicians to evaluate the effects of treatment in routine clinical practice is presented.

Key words: empirically supported treatments, efficacy, effectiveness, clinical utility evaluation methods, client-focused research.


 

 

ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


    

Monika DEKOWSKA, Piotr JAŚKOWSKI (2011). W świecie masek, czyli o tym, jak osoby z autyzmem spostrzegają ludzką twarz // In the world full of masks. A study on how people with autism perceive human faces. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 1, 91-125.

 

Summary: The human face is one of the major stimuli of social nature. With its rapid and effective analysis we are able to make judgments about people's physical attractiveness, moods, certain personality traits, mental states, intentions and even intelligence. Above all, the correct interpretation of someone's facial expression determines the success in creating and maintaining a mutually satisfying social contacts. In turn, a deficit of social interaction is one of three main components of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). This article presents a critical review of recent research on face perception in indi­viduals who suffer from ASD. These recent results suggest atypical face-processing in autistic chil­dren and adults, and also the existence of structural and functional abnormalities in the brain regions responsible for perception of faces and emotions in people with autism. This work is an attempt to interpret an extensive pool of experimental studies presented here in the context of normal face perception development and the two cognitive theories of autism, namely Utah Frith's Central Coherence Deficit and Simon Baron-Cohen's Lack of Theory of Mind. The article also indicated new directions for research into the human face perception difficulties among people with ASD.

Key words: face perception, emotion perception, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), fusiform face area (FFA), amygdala (AMY), brain neuroimaging techniques, event-related potentials (ERP), cog­nitive theories of autism.

 


  

Ewa RZECHOWSKA (2011).  Podejście procesualne: warianty badań nad procesami w mikro- i makroskali // A processual approach: Variants of research on processes in a micro- and

macro-scale. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 1, 127-157.

 

Summary: Developmental psychologists differ in the way they define development, the kind of applied investi­gative procedures, the character of obtained images of phenomena (building the intermediate model of phenomenon vs. multi-paths model of a phenomenon transformation). The aim of the article is to present the author's own processual approach, following from L. S. Vygotsky's and K. Duncker's variants of the microgenetic method. The processual approach is the author's proposition, an example of the solutions offered in experimental-and-theoretical psychology (Fischer, Bidell, 2006). It consists in formulation of the theoretical-and-developmental as well as methodological basis of research and on deep empirical explorations. It allows to start research in the case of incomplete knowledge about a phenomenon (phenomenon's aspect) and in the case of difficulties with the conceptualization of the research problem. The processual analysis is always conducted on two levels: (1) the level of indivi­dual cases as well as on (2) the level of group of individual cases, while on the consecutive stages of data processing, the analyzed cases maintain their initial qualities. A detailed analysis of individual cases leads to the reconstruction of the phenomenon's courses in its variability and diversity. Uncove­ring what is common (relatively stable) in the courses of a phenomenon is the basis for the construc­tion of one or multi-paths model of the phenomenon's transformation. Depending on the specificity of the phenomenon, different research procedures are applied. Their presentation is illustrated with examples from already completed studies.

Key words: processual approach, microgenetic method, development, process.

 


  

Jarosław GROTH (2011). Identyfikacja projekcyjna - od rzeczywistości intrapsychicznej do interpersonalnej // Projective identification - from internal reality to interpersonal reality. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 1, 159-175

 

Summary: The aim of this article is to present the mechanism of projective identification, one of the crucial constructs of both classical and contemporary psychoanalysis. The phenomenon of projective identi­fication is discussed from the point of view of M. Klein - the creator of this construct - and from the perspectives of W. R. Bion and T. H. Ogden, the authors of two fundamental theories of this mecha­nism. The presentation of these points of view serves to show the complexity of this phenomenon and the variety of areas for its application. The aim of the paper is to show the evolution of how this mechanism was understood, from the focus on what is intrapsychic and imaginative, to the recogni­tion of the importance of its activity in the area of interpersonal reality.

Key words: projective identification, projection, object relation, fantasy, psychic reality, containing, interpersonal relation.

 


  

Jacek ŚLIWAK, Beata ZARZYCKA (2011). Niepokój jako korelat poczucia osamotnienia u homoseksualnych mężczyzn // Anxiety is linked to sense of loneliness in homosexual men. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 1, 177-191.

 

Summary: The present study focuses on the relationship between sense of loneliness and level and structure of anxiety in homosexual men. Seventy-two homosexual men, aged from 18 to 41, took part in the study and were investigated with the IPAT Scale and De Jong-Gierveld's Loneliness Scale. The sexual orientation of each participant was determined by his direct declaration. The results of this study show that anxiety correlated with the level of loneliness and accounted for approximately 28% of variance in loneliness among homosexual men.

Key words: anxiety, loneliness, homosexuality.

Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 12.12.2012, godz. 19:23 - Karol Juros