ARTYKUŁ DYSKUSYJNY // FOCUS ARTICLE


  

Jerzy M. BRZEZIŃSKI (2011).  Jakiej  psychologii  (i psychologów)  potrzebuje społeczeństwo? // What kind of psychology (and psychologists) does the society need? Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 2, 7-32.

 

Summary: The article focuses on several factors whose negative influence can be observed in the process of educating future psychologists and in the psychological practice in Poland. The following are regarded by the author as the most detrimental:

1. The systematic lowering of academic standards; infusing psychology with pseudo-scientific concepts.

2. The transition from elite to mass education at psychological studies.

3. The absence of clear-cut criteria granting or refusing admission to the profession of psycholo­gist; the increasing devaluation of the profession's status.

4. The lack of substantive (statutorily guaranteed) control over the institutions which offer psycho­logical trainings and courses; preying on the naivety of students and young, inexperienced graduates.

5. Too liberal policy of the state concerning the setting up of new major courses in psychology by newly established schools and offering by various academic institutions BA courses with the word "psychology" in the course title, which suggests that the graduates will possess qualifica­tions in psychology entitling them to render psychological services.

6. The lowering of the criteria assessing the effects of education (examinations, credits).

7. The lack of balance in the assessment of academics - the assessment of research performance is more important than judging the standard of teaching.

8. Recurrent attempts at implementing the Bologna system into the organisation of psychological studies (the two cycles system - Bachelor/Master).

It is the author's aim to draw the attention of Polish psychologists to the potential threats which may impact the level of research performance, the standard of teaching, and psychological practice.

Key words: psychology, education of psychological students, scientific research in psychology, methodological awareness of psychologists, psychological practice, professional ethics. 

 


  

 

  

ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


  

Joanna RÓŻYCKA, Katarzyna SKRZYPIŃSKA (2011). Perspektywa noetyczna w psychologicznym funkcjonowaniu człowieka // The noethic perspective in human psychological functioning. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 2, 101-121.

 

Summary: This article aims at clarification of notions associated with the noethic dimension of human functio­ning and at terminological systematization in this area. The article presents a critical approach to some of the definitions found in the literature and proposes a new term - "the noethic perspective". In the classification of the definitions, the internal (within the self) and external (self in relation to others) aspect was taken into account, within five psychological spheres of human functioning: cognitive (intellectual), emotional-motivational (behavioral), experiential, physical (physiological) and social.

Key words: spirituality, noethic perspective, psychology.

 


  

Dorota CZYŻOWSKA (2011). O związkach między rozwojem moralnym a zachowaniami przestępczymi // Moral development and criminal behaviour. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 2, 123-140.

 

Summary: In the search for the reasons why some people commit criminal acts, disturb social order, cause harm to others and pose a menace to public well-being, the centrepiece of much of psychological research has increasingly become moral development and its significance for social behaviour. Moral immaturity, defined as moral development halted at its early stages with a concomitant lack of perspective taking (beyond one's own egocentrism), has been identified in the moral develop­ment research as one of the culprits of aggressive and criminal behaviour by facilitating disregard for law, moral principles and social codes of conduct. In this paper, I will attempt to highlight the possible associations between moral development and criminal behaviour. I will refer to relevant theories in order to provide an explanation of this relationship and include results of empirical re­search that confirm it.

Key words: criminal behaviour, moral development, moral thinking, moral behaviour.

 


  

Kinga KALETA (2011). Rodzinne uwarunkowania społecznego funkcjonowania jednostek w świetle teorii Minuchina i Bowena // Familial determinants of social functioning in light of Minuchin's and Bowen's theories. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 2, 141-158.

 

Summary: Family mechanisms of social functioning development were analyzed. The basis for the conducted analyses were provided by the boundary types according to Salvador Minuchin, in concurrence with the degree of Self-differentiation and relational patterns (fusion, triangulation, autonomy, intimacy, personal authority in the family system, isolation, intergeneration intimidation), as proposed by Murray Bowen. Integration of these notions is proposed, indicating their similarity and mutual complementation.

 

Key words: social functioning, family systems, family types, family boundaries, differentiation of Self, relational patterns.

 


  

Romana KADZIKOWSKA-WRZOSEK (2011). Wytrwałość i skuteczność działania: wpływ kontekstu sytuacyjnego i siły woli // Persistence and effectiveness in goal directed activity: The effect of situational context and the strenght of will. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 2, 159-187.

 

Summary: The purpose of the present study (N = 120) was to examine whether persistence and effectiveness of goal directed activity depend on situational context (control vs. autonomy support) and individual difference in efficiency of control action mechanisms. The theoretical background for the choice of independent variables included Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci's Self-Determination Teory and Julius Kuhl's strength of will conception. The results confirmed the interactional effect of the situational context (control vs. autonomy support) and individual difference in the efficiency of ac­tion control mechanisms on persistence and effectiveness. The indexes of persistence and effective­ness were greater for state-oriented participants with externally controlled instructions than for indi­viduals who received autonomy-supportive instructions. Action-oriented participants were less in­fluenced by the specific way of motivating (control vs. autonomy), however, when the effect of the situational context was stronger, action-oriented participants had lower indexes of persistence and effectiveness. In the context of external control, state oriented participants had higher indexes of persistence and effectiveness as compared to action-oriented participants. In the autonomy-support context, action-oriented participants had higher indexes of persistence and effectiveness than state-oriented participants.

Key words: autonomy, control, strength of will, persistence, effectiveness.

 


  

Justyna OLSZEWSKA (2011). Zniekształcenia pamięci jako następstwo wcześniejszej wiedzy oraz różnego sposobu kodowania informacji // Memory distortions as a result of prior knowledge and various ways of information encoding. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 14, 2, 189-206.

 

Summary: False memories are well-established, episodic memory phenomena. In two experiments, memory distortions were found with regard to verbal material (prose excerpt). The study demonstrated strong influence of prior knowledge on memory for current information. Imaginative and non-imaginative ways of encoding information as well as the presence of perceptual elements were also crucial for creating false memory. Moreover, two different ways of retrieving information were analyzed: recall and recognition. The results are consistent with recent research focused on the mechanisms of memory distortions.

Key words: memory distortions, false memory, knowledge, imaginative encoding.

Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 11.12.2012, godz. 20:48 - Karol Juros