Agnieszka PLUTA (2012). Mechanizmy poznawcze teorii umysłu // Cognitive mechanisms of theory of mind. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 1, 7-30.

 

Summary: The goal of the article is to familiarize Polish reader with the current state of knowledge about cognitive mechanisms of theory of mind. In the article, the author presents theoretical framework underlying capacity to understand mental states of others as well as the most recent neuroimagin-ing methods (functional magnetic resonance, transcranial magnetic stimulation) and studies of patients with brain impairments. The author discusses: brain localization of theory of mind, relation between theory of mind and executive functions and language, dissociation between cog­nitive and affective theory of mind. On the basis of literature review, the author indicates methodo­logical challenges and difficulties pertaining to research on brain mechanisms underlying theory of mind in norm and pathology.

Key words: theory of mind, functional magnetic resonance, transcranial magnetic stimulation, executive functions, language, brain impairment.

  


 

Adriana SCHETZ (2012). Percepcja bez wrażeń zmysłowych. „Nowa psychologia” J. J. Gibsona // Perception without sensations. The “New Psychology” of J. J. Gibson. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 1, 31-53.

 

Summary: The paper discusses the development of the new - in 1950-1980 - approach to the visual perception proposed by the American psychologist James J. Gibson. He is known from his skepticism about the category of sensation that emerged within the context of idealistic philosophy, and from his ecological theory of perception, wherein the boundary between the subject and environment is obliterated. However, it is not always noticed that while referring to the Gestalt psychology he formulated a lot of original ideas. His detailed analysis of the ecosystem concept makes him more akin to the Gestalt theorists, despite the fact that his criticism of the Gestalt category seems to suggest the very opposite.

Key words: James J. Gibson, perception, ecological theory of perception, gestalt psychology, motor theory of perception, control of action, living retinal image, the senses as perceptual systems, optic array, perceptual invariants.

 


 

Krystian BARZYKOWSKI, Agnieszka NIEDŹWIEŃSKA (2012). Przegląd badań nad mimowolnymi wspomnieniami autobiograficznymi. Perspektywy badawcze // Review of studies on involuntary autobiographical memories.  Research perspectives. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 1, 55-74.

 

Summary: This article is devoted to autobiographical memories that come to mind without preceding attempt to retrieve in non-clinical group. Involuntary memories are distinguished from intrusive memories and Proustian involuntary memories. The research domain of involuntary memories is presented in terms of main research problems, methods and current empirical results. The authors also raise the most important questions and challenges for future research.

Key words: autobiographical memory, involuntary memories, involuntary retrieval.

 


 

Katarzyna SKRZYPIŃSKA (2012). Granice duchowości - perspektywa pierwsza // The borders of spirituality - the first approach. Research perspectives. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 1, 75-96.

 

Summary: Delimitation of spirituality phenomenon is very difficult task. Young history of researching this phenomena shows the spirituality as not only seeking for sacred, not only religion or beliefs, but much more complicated construct. The body of many research from different fields of psychology shows different points of view and perspectives in which spirituality may be investigated. There are three visible approaches which treat spirituality as: 1) life attitude, 2) dimension of personality and 3) cognitive schema. The first of above standpoint/hypothesis was tested. Objectives (N = 200) were young people, students of the universities and academies of different interests: humanistic, exact science and artistic. They were asked what the spirituality generally is (broad social/cultural meaning), especially for them (personal meaning) and what spiritual strivings are. The results showed very differentiated understanding of spirituality depending on particular interests and the three formal components of it: cognitive, emotional and behavioral one.

Key words: spirituality, life attitude, components of spirituality, life meaning.

 


 

Malwina SZPITALAK, Romuald POLCZYK (2012). Wpływ zaangażowania, zagrożenia Ja i dezinformacji na zniekształcenia raportów pamięciowych // The impact of self-threat and personal engagement on distortions of memory reports. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 1, 97-113.

 

Summary: The main aim of the presented experiment was to verify whether self-threat and low engagement influence memory processes of eyewitnesses, including their susceptibility to misinformation. The results replicated the eyewitness misinformation effect. Also, according to the hypotheses, high engagement and self-threat resulted in better memory, enhancing the performance of non-misled participants. However, the hypotheses stating that self-threat and engagement influence the sus­ceptibility to misinformation were not confirmed. The enhancement of memory of non-misled subjects was interpreted in terms of increased motivation to self-protecting and more careful proc­essing of the material to be remembered. The lack of relationship between self-threat, engagement and the susceptibility to misinformation could be due to the fact that self-threat and engagement act oppositely: on the one hand, they enhance the memory of the original event, but they also increase the memory of misinformation. Thus, no general effect is present.

Key words: memory, misinformation, eyewitness testimony, engagement, motivation, self-threat, engagement.

 

 

Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 11.12.2012, godz. 19:04 - Karol Juros