Jerzy M. BRZEZIŃSKI (2012). Co to znaczy, że wyniki przeprowadzonych przez psychologów badań naukowych poddawane są analizie statystycznej? // What does it mean that the results of research conducted by psychologists are subjected to statistical analysis? Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 3, 7-40.  


Referring to the current methodological awareness of psychologists, drawing on his own long­standing research and teaching experience, and inspired by works such as Cohen (1990-2006, 1994/2006) or Wilkinson & Task Force on Statistical Inference (1999), the author addresses crucial problems involved in the use of methods of statistical analysis of data derived from psychological research. He also draws attention to the possible sources of misconduct as well as to optimal solu­tions, whose adoption by researchers will minimize error variance and contribute to a significant reduction of artifacts created. The aim of the article is also to draw attention to the possible sources of scientific misconduct. The author focused on the following the issues: the standard view of the research process, the concept of statistical analysis of data in the research process, the necessity of replicating research findings, the NHST vs. confidence interval opposition, the importance of de­termining effect size, and the usefulness of conducting multivariate analysis.

Key words: research process, methodological awareness, effect size (ES), NHST, confidence intervals, replication, multivariate analysis.





Krzysztof JODZIO, Daria BIECHOWSKA, Edyta SZUROWSKA, Dariusz GĄSECZKI (2012). Profilowa analiza dysfunkcji wykonawczych w diagnostyce neuropsychologicznej osób po udarze mózgu // Profile-based analysis of executive dysfunctions in neuropsychological examination of patients after stroke. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 3, 83-100. 


Executive dysfunction (ExD) is a relatively common new diagnostic entity, which includes variety of symptoms of disorganized behavior, such as loss of ability to programming, initiating, and con­trolling ongoing actions. One of the most common origin of ExD is ischaemic stroke. Forty-three patients following unilateral hemispheric stroke were submitted to five tasks of executive functions, which is believed to measure an overall flexibility of problem solving (Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test), ability to switch of attention (Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test), and inhibitory control processes (Stroop Color-Word Test, go/no-go task). Subjects were divided into three anatomically-defined groups. The area of structural damage was limited entirely to the respec­tive frontal lobe, subcortical region (mostly striatum, thalamus, and/or internal capsule) or posterior (non-frontal) cortices. All brain lesions were verified by CT or MR scan. Also, 25 healthy subjects took part in the study. Results showed: (a) patients' group manifested variety of ExD which were heterogeneous with respect to severity and character, (b) the most severe deficit was disinhibition of automatic response in go/no-go task, (c) the patients with frontal or subcortical lesions had more difficulties controlling (inhibiting) ongoing verbal and motor responses than the patients with posterior cerebral lesions, (d) utility of profile-based analysis (pattern analysis of test scores) was emphasized in diagnosis of intraindividual heterogeneity in executive functioning after stroke. For instance, a strong association was found between extent of intraindividual differences of test scores and the overall severity of ExD.

Key words: executive functions, frontal lobes, control, inhibition, stroke.






Aleksandra JASIELSKA (2012). Treść i struktura prototypu wstydu jako przykładu emocji złożonej // Content and structure of shame's prototype as complex emotion's example. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 3, 101-107. 


This study is based on the conclusion that emotion knowledge is organized in terms of prototypes. The subject of this exploratory study is autoevaluative self-conscious emotion - shame. The participants (N = 29) were asked to describe emotional autobiographical emotional episode. Then the subjects' narratives were categorized by coders and submitted to hierarchical cluster analysis. The result was a prototypical description of this emotion. Derived, exploratory results provide mainly: 1) the description of complex emotion as prototype, 2) the structural characteristic of shame, 3) arbitrate the issue of „potential synthesis" in the field of postcognitive emotions.

Key words: shame, narrative, prototype. 

Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 26.02.2013, godz. 10:10 - Karol Juros