ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


 

Anna GABIŃSKA, Bartosz ZALEWSKI, Bartosz SZYMCZYK, Hubert SUSZEK, Małgorzata JĘDRASIK-STYŁA (2012). Mechanizmy zdrowia i zaburzeń psychicznych w teorii dialogowego Ja // The mechanisms of mental health and mental disorders in the dialogical selftheory. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 4, 7-26. 

 

Summary: The paper presents the literature review on the mechanisms of mental health and mental disorders from the Dialogical Self Theory perspective. In its first part, the most important assumptions of the Dialogical Self Theory are presented, relevant to the understanding the health and psychopathology. In the second part, the following main determinants of mental health are described: (1) possessing sufficient self diversity; (2) the ability to be aware of possessing many I-positions; (3) the ability of different I-positions to engage in dialogical relations; (4) the presence of metaposition. In the third part of the article, key mechanisms responsible for the development of mental disorders are gathe­red, grouped and described. The following groups of those mechanisms have been distinguished: (1) primary impairment consisting in disturbances of dialogues among I-positions (absence of dialogue, disorganized dialogues, monologue, impoverished dialogues); (2) secondary impairment involving dysfunctions in the hierarchy of I-positions (silent positions, domination, lack of hierar­chy, dysfunctional coalitions); (3) impaired functioning of metaposition. FInally, the practical utility of the presented understanding of psychopathology is discussed.

Key words: dialogical self, mental health, psychological disorders, psychopathological mechanisms.


 

Anna BATORY (2012). Wielowymiarowe i dynamiczne Ja podstawą tożsamości // The multifaceted and dynamic self as the basis of identity. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 4, 29-47. 

 

Summary: The paper presents contemporary views of the self-system, focusing on the perspective of social-cognitive psychology. On the basis of current studies, links between self and personal identity are explained. Establishing the relationship between those two constructs is a neglected theoretical problem. Undertaking this issue is essential not only to the clarification of the empirical field but also to progress in the integration of knowledge in this area. The paper is focused on the issues of self-complexity and dynamics as principles of self-system organization that are crucial from the social-cognitive point of view. It elucidates how the idea of a heterogenous self implies a dynamic view of personal identity, which is potentially multifaceted and changeable.

Key words: self, identity.


 

Malwina SZPITALAK, Romuald POLCZYK (2012). Kiedy ostrzeżenie pomaga, a kiedy szkodzi? Wpływ ostrzeżenia na trafność zeznania świadka // When does warning help and when does it harm? The impact of warning on eyewitness testimony. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 4, 51-72. 

 

Summary: The presented studies are concerned with the misinformation effect in the context of eyewitness testimony. The main purpose of the experiments was to present the possible consequences (positive ones and negative ones) of warning participants about inconsistencies between original and poste­vent materials to the quality of memory report. Another aim of the studies was to include an addi­tional stage in the typical procedure of researching misinformation effect: the presentation of an additional postevent material. In both experiments, after the original material was shown to them, participants were exposed to two postevent materials. One of the materials correctly repeated the information from the original material or contained neutral information, while the other one inclu­ded some misleading information. The two experiments differed in the sequence of the exposition of postevent materials. In the first study, misinformation manipulation was used in the first material. In the second study, the first postevent material was neutral or contained information correctly repeated from the original material. As expected, in Experiment 1 the tainted truth effect was observed, whereas in Experiment 2 warning eliminated the misinformation effect.

Key words: misinformation effect, warning, tainted truth effect, eyewitness testimony, forensic psychology.


 

Magdalena SZUBIELSKA (2012). Funkcjonowanie teorii umysłu u dzieci niewidomych // The functioning of the theory of mind in blind children. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 4, 73-93. 

 

Summary: This study explored the development of a theory of mind in blind children aged between 7 and 14 years. Four tasks were administered. Two of them assessed the understanding of false beliefs: de­ceptive container test and changed location test; the other two assessed the perspective-taking ability with regard to well-known and unknown objects. Older blind children performed better than youn­ger students in false belief tasks and in the perspective-taking task with regard to well-known objects. Moreover, blind children had less difficulty with understanding other people's beliefs than with understanding their perspective, but only when understanding the perspective concerned an unknown abstract object.

Key words: blind children, theory of mind.


 

Piotr HRECIŃSKI, Zenon UCHNAST (2012). Typy charakteru a obraz siebie // Character types and self-concept. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 4, 95-115. 

 

Summary: The present study aims to answer the following question: What multidimensional relationships exist between character type and the structure of a person's self-concept? We examined 174 students of theology using Z. Uchnast's Action Styles Questionnaire (KSD) and W. H. Fitts' Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS), translated and elaborated by Uchnast. The former method was used to de­fine character types in the examined group. The letter method was used to describe the structure of the individual's self-concept. Our analysis points to a positive self-concept among those who are oriented toward synergy with others (synergetic or cautious character type). By contrast, people with a negative self-concept are those oriented toward self-preservation (conformist or competitive character type). There is a characteristic dissimilarity in the configuration of TSCS scores between people whose character types are oriented toward synergy and people whose character types are oriented toward self-preservation. The existence of this dissimilarity indicates that the fundamental, qualitative difference between character types lies in their orientation either toward synergy with others or toward self-preservation.

Key words: character, character types, self-concept, action styles, synergy, self-preservation.


 

Tomasz BESTA, Magdalena BŁAŻEJ (2012). Religijność poszukująca i fundamentalizm religijny: Dwa wymiary religijności w badaniach empirycznych // Quest religion and religious fundamentalism: Two dimensions of religious orientations in empirical studies. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 4, 117-137. 

 

Summary: Three empirical studies were conducted (N = 64, 170, 166) to test the relationship between religious fundamentalism, quest religion, locus of control, social desirability, trait anxiety and self-concept clarity. As in previous studies, religious fundamentalism was found to be negatively related to quest religion. External locus of control was a significant predictor of religious fundamentalism, but not of quest religion, and mediated the relationship between trait anxiety and religious fundamentalism. In Study 3, self-concept clarity was found to be related to quest religion but not to religious funda­mentalism. Consequences of these findings for empirical research on religiousness are discussed.

Key words: religiousness, religious fundamentalism, anxiety, locus of control.


 

Ryszard KLAMUT (2012). Typy struktury sensu życia a treści celów wybieranych do realizacji // Types of structure of meaning of life and the content of goals set for accomplishment. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 4, 139-158. 

 

Summary: The purpose of the article is to analyze associations between the meaning of life and the content of goals set for accomplishment. This is an attempt to combine two psychological perspectives: existential and cognitive. The experience of meaning in life was described by means of four types reflecting both the need for and the sense of meaning. The content of goals was specified in terms of seven categories. Empirical research was carried out on a group of 143 adults. The meaning of life was assessed using two tests, based on Frankl's theory - Crumbaugh and Maholick's PIL and Crumbaugh's SONG. The content of goals was defined by participants themselves in a survey they filled in. In statistical analysis, the non-parametric statistic (y2) was used to identify differences in the number of goals with different content between the types of structure of meaning of life.

Key words: meaning of life, types of meaning of of life, content of goals, cognitive psychology, existential psychology.

Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 09.05.2013, godz. 16:26 - Karol Juros