ARTICLES


 

Maria JARYMOWICZ (2013). Ideals as Regulatory Mechanisms: Ideal Self Complexity and Social Attitudes.  Annals of Psychology, 16, 2, 163-197.

 

Summary: When do ideals influence functioning? The author assumes that the high complexity of the ideal self favors social attitudes consistent with axiological standards. Two correlative studies are pre­sented: Study 1, with the participation of students from the University of Warsaw (n = 118), and Study 2, with the participation of young Internet users (n = 326). The hypothesis predicted that the number of ideal self attributes would correlate with egalitarian and pro-life attitudes. In both stu­dies, participants were supposed to generate traits of the ideal self-reflecting its complexity (ISC). In Study 1, the asymmetry effect in the ratings of physical dictance between Self and Outgroup members was measured. In Study 2, a questionnaire was applied to measure attitudes towards egalitarian and pro-life rules. The results of both studies show that groups with lower ISC levels displayed a more stereotypical perception of distance between Self and Outgroup members as well as less egalitarian and less pro-life attitudes compared to groups with higher ISC levels.

Keywords: desired self: ought self vs. ideal self, axiological complexity and axiological emotio­nality, asymmetry in Self-Outgroup distance rating, egalitarian and pro-life attitudes.

 


 

Anna SUCHAŃSKA, Agnieszka WORACH (2013). Self-Complexity and the Sense of Identity. Annals of Psychology, 16, 2, 199-233.

 

Summary: The article presents an attempt at an empirical analysis of the relation between self-concept diffe­rentiation and the sense of identity. Patricia Linville's concept of self-complexity and a multidimen­sional approach to the sense of identity have been used. The hypothesized relations of these struc­tural characteristics of personality with self-esteem have been analyzed as well. Research results indicate no connections of self-complexity with the sense of consistency, stability, separateness, accessibility of identity content, or self-esteem. However, cluster analysis revealed the presence of three groups with characteristic combinations of identity and self-complexity dimensions as well as different self-esteem levels. The psychological significance of these differences is discussed.

Keywords: self-complexity, self-concept differentiation, self-concept consistency, sense of identity, self-esteem.

 


 

Malwina SZPITALAK, Karolina DUKAŁA, Romuald POLCZYK (2013). Reinforced Self-Affirmation and Reinforced Failure Reduce Susceptibility to Misinformation. Annals of Psychology, 16, 2, 235-261.

 

Summary: The main aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reinforced self-affirmation and reinforced failure on the memory misinformation effect. The misinformation effect consists in the witness including some incorrect details into their testimony, stemming from sources other than the original event. In the reinforced self-affirmation procedure, participants first recall their greatest achievements in life and are afterwards given a memory task with positive feedback about their performance on it. In a series of previous experiments, reinforced self-affirmation proved to reduce vulnerability to misinformation. The same result was obtained in the present study. Reinforced failure is a procedure not studied before, consisting in the participants recalling their greatest failures in life, connected with negative feedback about performance on a memory task. It was hypothesized that reinforced failure would increase vulnerability to misinformation. The results pointed to the opposite tendency - participants in the reinforced failure group performed better than those in the misled control group. The reduction in susceptibility to misinformation was greater in the reinforced self-affirmation group than in the reinforced failure one. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility of constructing a method of immunizing people to the misinformation effect available in practice for a wide community of professionals dealing with interrogations.

Keywords: misinformation effect, reinforced self-affirmation, reinforced failure, eyewitness testimony, memory.

 


 

Kamil IMBIR (2013). Origins and Sources of Emotion as Factors that Modulate the Scope of Attention. Annals of Psychology, 16, 2, 263-310.

 

Summary: The processes of visual attention and stimulus detection are a key stage of perception. In the presented studies we tested the role of the genesis (automatic vs. reflective) and source (internal vs. external stimuli) of emotions in the detection of new stimuli (close to or distant from the fixation point). We expected (1) a narrowing of the field of attention in the case of automatic emotion elicitation or internal sources of emotion; (2) an extension of attention field in the case of reflective processes or external sources of emotion. In Study 1 (n = 90) we used explicit presentation of sentences eliciting emotions. In Study 2 (n = 60) we used degraded presentation (32 ms + masking) of words charged with affect. The hypotheses were partly confirmed by the data collected. We found that in the case of eliciting emotions with automatic origin or internal source detection times were significantly shorter for stimuli occurring close to the fixation point. In the case of reflective emotion eliciting condition and external emotion source, no significant differences were observed in reaction times between stimuli close to and distant from the fixation point.

Keywords: degraded presentations, scope of attention, intensive vs. extensive attention, taxonomy of human emotions.

 


 

Ewelina PĘKALSKA (2013). The Impact of Retinal Size on Mental Transformations in Imagery: Rotation, Synthesis Combination. Annals of Psychology, 16, 2, 311-342.

 

Summary: The following paper is an answer to a research question regarding the impact of retinal size (un­derstood as the tangent of the object's physical size and its distance from the subject) on mental transformations. A total of 182 people took part in three designed experiments, which included three types of operations: 1) synthesis as an operation changing the structure of the object; 2) rotation as an operation preserving the structure of the object; and 3) a combination of the two. The impact of retinal size on the course of rotation was confirmed. Furthermore, it turned out that this impact significantly influenced the effectiveness of all three mental operations. A tendency regarding the impact of physical size on synthesis was demonstrated (participants performed mental transfor­mations in the most optimal way on 15 cm (5.9 in) objects - such that can be held in a hand in the real world). It was noticeable that the optimal distance to the object, preferred by participants, was 30 cm (11.8 in). In the real world, such a distance enables them to transform objects freely within arm's reach. The obtained results support the analogousness of the mental world to the world in which we live.

Keywords: imagination, mental rotation, mental synthesis, simultaneous operations, retinal size, object size vs. mental operations.

 


 

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS


 

Magdalena SZUBIELSKA, Katarzyna JAROSZEK, Bartłomiej KILJANEK (2013). Costs of changing modality in visuo-haptic recognition of scenes. Annals of Psychology, 16, 2, 343-365.

 

Summary: The experiment is aimed at investigating the factors that may modulate the costs of cross-modal visuo-haptic recognition of scenes. Participants learned a scene either visually or by touch (in the latter case they were blindfolded); then, following a delay, they identified the scene using the same or changed modality. The level of difficulty was adjusted by introducing two or three changes in the placement of scene elements at the recognition stage. It has been demonstrated that the costs of modality change, related to both decreased accuracy of recognition and extended time for making decision, occur only in a situation when a significant burden is imposed on working memory, i.e., with tactile learning of a scene and a high level of difficulty of the recognition task.

The experiment is aimed at investigating the factors that may modulate the costs of cross-modal visuo-haptic recognition of scenes. Participants learned a scene either visually or by touch (in the latter case they were blindfolded); then, following a delay, they identified the scene using the same or changed modality. The level of difficulty was adjusted by introducing two or three changes in the placement of scene elements at the recognition stage. It has been demonstrated that the costs of modality change, related to both decreased accuracy of recognition and extended time for making decision, occur only in a situation when a significant burden is imposed on working memory, i.e., with tactile learning of a scene and a high level of difficulty of the recognition task.

Keywords: cross-modal recognition, vision, touch.


 

 

Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 30.01.2014, godz. 20:26 - Karol Juros