ARTICLES


 

How to cite: Ogińska-Bulik, N. (2016). Ruminations and effects of trauma in women experiencing domestic violence. Annals of Psychology, 19(4), 643-658. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.4-1en

 

Abstract: The study aimed to establish the relationship between ruminations and the occurrence of negative (posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms) and positive (posttraumatic growth) effects of trauma resulting from the experience of violence in the family. The data of 89 women who have experienced domestic violence were analyzed. The participants’ age ranged from 18 to 60 years (M = 34.36, SD = 12.81). The following Polish versions of standardized tools were used: the Impact of Event Scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Event-Related Rumination Inventory, the last of these measuring two types of ruminations: intrusive and deliberate. Both types of ruminations proved to be associated, above all, with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Weaker associations were noted between the intensity of deliberate ruminations and posttraumatic growth. Intrusive ruminations played a predictive role with regard to posttraumatic stress disorder: above all, with regard to intrusion and arousal; deliberate ruminations proved to be a predictor of posttraumatic growth, mainly positive changes in self-perception and relations with others. Ruminations play an essential role in the occurrence of both negative and positive outcomes of the experienced trauma.

 

Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder; posttraumatic growth; ruminations; women; domestic violence.


 

How to cite: Szubielska, M., Niestorowicz, E., Marek, B. (2016). Drawing without eyesight. Evidence from congenitally blind learners. Annals of Psychology, 19(4), 681-700. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.4-2en

 

Abstract: The paper investigates the formal characteristics of drawings made by congenitally blind children and teenagers as well as the possibility and level of accuracy in the recognition of these drawings by sighted individuals. The study involved children and students aged seven to fifteen years. The formal features predominant in the drawings analyzed were typical for the failed realism stage. As an additional goal of the study, we investigated the usefulness of the transfograph as an educational resource supporting the introduction of tactile graphics to congenitally blind persons. Drawings made by blind subjects before and after training with a transfograph revealed a similar level of difficulty with their identification. However, following a prompt about the subject of each drawing, those made after the training were described by judges as more easily identifiable. In addition, the drawings made after training showed fewer features of failed realism.

 

Keywords: congenitally blind persons; development of drawing skills; imagery; tactile graphics; transfograph.


 

How to cite: Zawadzka, A. M., Iwanowska, M. (2016). Explicit and implicit materialism vs. self-esteem and readiness for self-improvement in young people. Annals of Psychology, 19(4), 723-743. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.4-3en

 

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to present an analysis of the relationship between explicit and implicit materialism, self-esteem, and readiness for self-improvement in teenagers. We carried out two studies. In the first one, we examined what object and activity categories are linked to teenage happiness and how the category of happiness associated with possessing things is linked to materialistic teenage attitudes. The second study looked into the associations of implicit materialism with implicit materialism, self-esteem, and readiness for self-improvement. The obtained results showed that (a) five categories of teenage happiness can be distinguished: people and animals, interests, sport, achievements, material possessions and money; (b) as initially assumed, implicit materialism is positively linked to explicit materialism and negatively linked to both self-esteem (Study 2) and readiness for self-improvement (Studies 1 and 2). However, no significant relationship was observed between explicit materialism and self-esteem or readiness for self-improvement.

 

Keywords: adolescent; implicit and explicit materialism; self-esteem; readiness for self-improvement.


 

How to cite: Steuden, S., Brudek, R., Izdebski, P. (2016). A Polish adaptation of Monika Ardelt’s Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS). Annals of Psychology, 19(4), 769-792. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.4-3en

 

Abstract: The article outlines the results of academic endeavors to develop a Polish adaptation of Monika Ardelt’s Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS). The results obtained using the Polish version are comparable to those obtained using the original research instrument, which proves that the Polish 3D-WS can be successfully used for research purposes. The Polish adaptation consists of 39 items covering four dimensions: Cognitive, Affective, Self-Awareness, and Empathic. The scale testing procedure involved a research sample consisting of 475 people. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .83 for the entire scale and oscillated between .64 and .77 for the subscales. Over the course of the study, it turned out that some subscales of the Polish 3D-WS can be influenced by sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and education.

 

Keywords: wisdom; Polish adaptation; Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale.


 

 

SHORT REPORTS


 

How to cite: Riess, M., Janoszczyk, K., Niedźwieńska, A., Rendell, P. G. (2016). Gender differences in prospective memory in young and older adults. Annals of Psychology, 19(4), 803-812. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.4-5en

 

Abstract: The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between gender and prospective memory performance with respect to participants’ age and the specific requirements of prospective memory tasks. Prospective memory performance was better for women compared to men in the older adult group. In the entire sample, women performed better than men on prospective memory tasks with an external cue. The possible influence of factors related to the gender role, personality, and perception on prospective memory performance is discussed.

 

Keywords: prospective memory; gender differences; Virtual Week.


 

How to cite: Gorbaniuk, O., Kapinos, A., Chodara, M., Chochoł, P., Kazanowski, K., Kliszcz, T., Mroczek, K., Kot, P., Kolańska, M. (2016). Need-appeals, benefit-appeals, and brand-user-trait appeals in television advertising: A content analysis of commercials. Annals of Psychology, 19(4), 827-839. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.4-6en

 

Abstract: The aim of the exploratory study was to answer the question of which categories of needs dominate in television commercials of material products in Poland, which of the activated needs make up clusters in the light of marketing practice, which of the benefits offered the most frequently accompany the arousal of different categories of needs, and what are the most important correlates of activated needs from the perspective of design features and scenarios of advertising. A content analysis of a sample of 418 spots was carried out by 10 judges, whose reliability was psychometrically verified before and after the analysis. We adopted Maslow’s elaboration of his own theory of needs as the basis of taxonomy. Averaged assessment of judges became the basis of quantitative analysis, which showed the dominant role of lower-order needs in television commercials, the co-occurrence of higher-order needs, and their close link with the symbolic benefits (social, emotional and expressive) associated with advertised product brands and with the user image.

 

Keywords: needs; benefits; brand user image; TV commercials; brands; goods.

Autor: Ana Ivanova
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 03.01.2017, godz. 12:29 - Ana Ivanova