ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


  

Wiesława OKŁA, Stanisława STEUDEN (1999). Strukturalne i dynamiczne aspekty zespołu wypalenia w zawodach wspierających // Structural and Dynamic Aspects of a Burned-out Syndrome in the Supportive Jobs. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 5-17.

 

Summary: The paper sought to discuss the burning out process in which one can distinguish its structural elements, its stage character and dynamism. On the basis of empirical research conducted by means of the experimental version of the Burned-Out Scale, the authors examined people employed in supportive jobs (nurses, social workers, doctors, teachers and policemen). They have distinguished five dimensions constituting the burned-out syndrome: lower emotional control, loss of subject’s commitment, a decrease in effective activity, limitation of interpersonal contacts, and physical fatigue. They pointed to the significance of the motivational factor and competence in its construction. On the basis of the dimensions of the burned-out syndrome the authors also presented a model of its dynamism in the supportive jobs.


  

Jerzy NOSARZEWSKI (1999). Efekty uczenia się uwarunkowane właściwościami temperamentu // Results of Learning as Conditioned by the Qualities of Temperament. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 19-31.

 

Summary: The relationship between the qualities of temperament and the results of learning were studied in the course of an experiment. The qualities of temperament were determined by means of the Strelau Temperament Questionnaire. The results of learning were examined on the basis of the following three tasks: writing words using conventional signs, solving logical problems and memorizing texts. School grades were also taken into consideration.

The results of the research show that there is a significant correlation between the temperament qualities, solving problems in the correct way and school grades. The students characterized by lower reactivity and higher mobility achieved significantly higher results in all three tasks. Their grades were also better. The students characterized by high reactivity, contrary to those showing low reactivity, made significantly more mistakes in the three tasks. The students who were more mobile, compared with the slower ones, made significantly more mistakes while writing words using conventional signs and presenting memorized texts.


  

Zenon UCHNAST (1999). Osobowa postawa wiary: model jakościowej analizy // The Personal Attitude of Faith: a Model of the Qualitative Analysis. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 33-53.

 

Summary: The problems of faith are taken as one of the basic attitudes in life not only in the recent encyclical Fides et ratioby John Paul II, but also in numerous other publications written by the authorities of contemporary psychology. What they stress in particular is that the attitude of faith adequately develops and grow as the interpersonal relations become more profound, mutual confidence in the reliability of a dialogue with other persons is reinforced and there is an openness to experience life events in all the three dimensions of time. The attitude of faith becomes an integral personal style to adopt a position in life and take an active part with others in life events. This is accompanied by a sense of confidence in the rationality of moral norms, a readiness to seek truth with a belief in human common sense and a conviction about the primary value of life and its developmental capacities. Now, religious faith may develop in the climate of that attitude and it is grounded on a reliable personal testimony of one’s direct or indirect dialogue with God, as a person with a person. In this context it has been particularly stressed how significant it is to refer religious faith, and ground it, on the reliability of the testimony and works of Jesus Christ as a Mediator between man and the Totally Different, transcendent God.

The structural qualitative analysis of the personal attitude of faith may constitute a foundation on which to grasp the elements of a reductionistic approach to the manifestations of religious faith. This is especially important when the meaningful dialogal and personal relations are omitted and they are treated merely as manners in which to deal with the subconscious mechanisms of irrational wishes and fears. In the dialogal interpersonal relations one may reasonably give credence to the internal coherence and rationality of the attitude of faith, submitting it to a systematic analysis according to the proposed model procedure.


  

Czesław WALESA (1999). Religijne przeżywanie piękna u młodzieży (rozwojowe badania osób w wieku od 12 do 24 lat) // Religious Experience of the Beauty in Adolescents (Developmental Research of the People Aged 12-24). Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 55-93.

 

Summary: The paper seeks to answer the following questions: 1) what are the forms under which the phenomena of the religious experience of beauty occur? 2) what are the differences here as regards age and sex? The paper is a continuation of research on religiosity (Wales 1997; 1998). In view of its theoretical foundations a definition of the religious phenomenon of the experience of beauty, its conditions, context factors, existential and purely aesthetic aspects, beauty in human life and others.

Forty people from each group have been examined: aged 12, 15, 18 and 24 (with equal sex groups). In order to gather data a standardized explorational interview has been used with a question about religious biography and 18 particular questions. The identified phenomena of the religious experience of beauty has been categorized according to the contents and parameters of religiosity. Thus established distributions of numbers have been presented in table one. Now, the differences in view of age and sex of the people under study have been shown in table two. The biggest scores have gained people aged 18, and as regards sex-women.

The paper has also discussed some issues of the religious experience of beauty in distress, the effects this experience of beauty has (mainly for religiosity and for the further course of life), the problem of spiritual ugliness as a passive and active negation of religious beauty (its consequences in life) and other.


  

Jerzy SZYMOŁON (1999). Przeżycie estetyczne a przeżycie religijne. Analiza porównawcza // Aesthetic Experience and Religious Experience: a Comparative Analysis. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 95-110.

 

Summary: The paper deals with a comparative analysis of the religious and aesthetic experiences. Treating philosophical considerations as a source of inspiration and external criterion of reference, the author first analyzes the psychological specific character of human experiences. He refers to the theories which stem from cognitive psychology.

Then he presents the structures of religious and aesthetic experiences. Careful analyses have served to show in the last part of the paper a total effect of the experiences under analysis, their similarities and differences.


  

Jacek ŚLIWAK (1999). Altruizm w koncepcji socjobiologicznej // Altruism in the Sociobiological Conception. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 111-123.

 

Summary: Sociobiology is a theory which has a bigger and bigger influence on the social sciences, and recently on social psychology.

The paper seeks to show altruism as regards the assumptions of that conception.

Since the question of sociobiology does not occupy too much place in Polish psychological literature, the paper has been prefaced by a short historical outline of the problem.

The sociobiological conception undertakes the problems of altruism, asking first of all, whether it is an adaptive behaviour. The representatives of that theory suggest that there are two types of altruistic behaviour which may be adaptive: 1) A behaviour that increase the of one’s own offspring to survive, 2) altruistic behaviour which will be reciprocated.

Wilson, the founder and main representative of that theory, was convinced that his sociobiological theory was a “supplement of The Darwinian revolution”. He would perceive that supplementation in the fact that he managed to explain in purely biological categories the following human behaviour: altruism, religiosity and values. He believed that they undergo natural selection.

In the closing part of the paper we find a critical reference to Wilson’s standpoints and the sociological conception. It has been shown that altruism, apart from biological explanations given by sociologists, may by accompanied by psychological and social explanations. The paper stresses that altruism my be an outcome of man’s ability to transcend himself, to overcome his own biological conditions. Many authors, e.g. Gould (cf. Mussen, Eisenberg-Berg, 1977), think that the explanation of human social behaviours in terms of heredity is only probable, but one has to be aware that there are others, “non-genetic” attempts at an explanation of those behaviours and they are equally probable.


  

Andrzej JUROS (1999). Psychospołeczne uwarunkowania aktywności samopomocowej: umacnianie osoby, grupy i wspólnoty // Psychosocial Conditions of Self-help Activity Empowerment of the Person, Group and Community. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 125-148.

 

Summary: Currently, we can observe a crisis of self and its respective weak ties with a group and lack of community bonds. All these make it that on the one hand there is a need for professional help, and on the other the effectiveness of such help is rated as low. The manners of empowering both he person, group and community are sought. We deal with such empowerment, among other things, at the level of self-help groups. Yet the source of that success should be sought not so much in the phenomenon of a group as in the very person and his activity. It is the person who thanks to his indispensable abilities can overcome biological and social limitations. Owing to self-help activity the person develops his abilities and frees himself from the sense of helplessness, powerlessness and hopelessness. The phenomenon of self-help activity requires that a new role and competence of the psychologist (and not only him) be defined in relation with self-help groups. On the one hand, he must be capable of arousing confidence in particular persons and groups to himself, to his own competencies, to use their own resources. On the other hand, he must be able to organize, facilitate and animate those social processes in which the division into the giving and the taking will be overcome. The reconstruction of a sense of community that is well underway in the self-help groups is an initial condition by which to join the broader trend of constructive social activities.


  

Marzena OŻAROWSKA, Wojciech OŻAROWSKI (1999). Przyjmowanie perspektywy partnera małżeńskiego w zakresie jego decyzji życiowo doniosłej // Accepting the Perspective of the Spouse as Regards his or her Momentous Decision. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 149-166.

 

Summary: The research sought to answer the question whether the duration of a marital relationship affects the spouse’s ability to accept his or her partner’s perspective. This has been done on the basis of the process of a momentous decision.

25 couples have been examined in each of the three different stages of marital life (group A = 0-4 years of marital life, group B = 5-18 years and group C = more than 18 years). They all varied as regards the number of children. The data have been gathered by means of three questionnaires for examining momentous decisions, referring to three perspectives (simple, metaperspective and meta-metaperspective), all of them based on the determined domains of the decision-making process. In order to study essential differences between the results test x2 has been used. Taking into consideration the degree of the agreement of beliefs between the spouses as regards the duration of their marriage, t-Student test has been used.

The duration of marriage has turned out to be an essential factor as regards awareness and usefulness. Assuming meta- and meta-metaperspective has turned out to be most varied among the couples who have lived together the longest time. At the same time this group was most capable of accepting the partner’s perspective.


  

Małgorzata PUCHALSKA-WASYL (1999). Rodzina i praca w systemie osobistych znaczeń kobiet pracujących naukowo // Family and Labour within the System of Personal Meanings of Women who are Academics. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 167-184.

 

Summary: The paper is an empirical attempt to answer the question about the essence of possible difference between the personal meanings attributed to work and family by female academics. As a theoretical background H.J.M. Hermans’s theory of valuation has been used. According to this theory, the subject organizes his or her experiences in a system of subjective meanings called valuations. They are always founded by two basic human motives (satisfied to a varied extent), i.e. a tendency to empower oneself (S) and a tendency to be united with others (O). The studies allow us to state that in the life of women who are academics, self-empowerment (S) distinctly dominates the experiences of a bond and being close (0). This results from the fact that the area of their job almost entirely satisfy the motive of self-development (S), and the family sphere, as the basic source of gratification of the communitarian motive (O) almost always allows for women to draw the sense of one’s own value (S) from the experiences of contact and unity. It also turns out that although the family roles constitute for women the same are of self-realization , as the role of an academic, but to sacrifice professional affairs for family affairs do not arouse any conflict, which occurs in the reverse situation.


  

Maria Monika CHUCHRA (1999). Czas trwania psychozy a poczucie zmiany siebie chorych na schizofrenię paranoidalną // The Duration of a Psychosis versus the Sense of Self-Change in Paranoid Schizophrenia. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 2, 185-205.

 

Summary: 180 paranoid schizophrenics have been examined by means of the adjective check list ACL. The group has been divided into three subgroups in relation to the duration of the psychosis, and then the current and pre-psychotic self-images have been compared. This allowed to state that:

- the patients from all the three subgroups experience self-changes,

- the respondents of subgroup I manifest the greatest sense of change, and this is the only subgroup which, on the whole, perceives some positive self-changes,

- the respondents of subgroups II and III have similar self-changes, yet in subgroup III it is noted as being more negative. The patients from subgroup II have somewhat better relationships with others and a better contact with their milieu; they seek to understand themselves and others, at times they take care about them, whereas the subjects of subgroup III are most resigned and apathetic,

- the sense of self-change in the subjects from the three subgroups is expressed by some essential changes in the results within various scales.It is particularly noteworthy that in all the three scales there were essential changes (Exh, Agg, S-Cn). The patients from all the three subgroups claim that presently they have a lesser need to show aggression and manifestation than they had before they fell ill. Therefore they have a greater need for self-control.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 30.05.2013, godz. 08:00 - Karol Juros