ARTICLES


 

How to cite: Daniluk, B., Borkowska, A. (2017). Humor appreciation in elderly people and its cognitive determinants. Annals of Psychology, 20(3), 529-543. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.3-1en

 

Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in humor appreciation exhibited by people from various age groups. There are still few data on how aging affects the perception of humorous contents. The literature suggests that elderly people exhibit increasing difficulties in understanding jokes. The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the level of humorous content comprehension in people in early and late old age and to identify its determinants. The participants were 109 individuals with physiological aging, divided into two age groups: group < 70 y.o. and group ≥ 71 y.o. We used interview, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Right Hemisphere Language Battery. In the Verbal Humor Appreciation test, older seniors gave significantly fewer correct answers than younger seniors. Women indicated more correct answers and fewer absurd ones than men. The ability to produce humor in old age is significantly predicted by the general state of mental functions and higher education. The scores on Verbal Humor Appreciation correlated with scores in Mini-Mental State Examination and with scores in the remaining tests on the RHLB battery. The ability to appreciate humorous contents appears to be dependent on age, gender, and the level of linguistic functions, conceptual thinking, sensitivity to prosodic elements, and discursive abilities. The results confirm the deterioration of processes significantly involving the right hemisphere with age.

Keywords: aging; cognitive functioning; humor; communication; right hemisphere.


 

How to cite: Borawski, D. (2017). Supporting the development of wisdom: The dialogical perspective. Annals of Psychology, 20(3), 563-578. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.3-2en

 

Abstract: The article presents internal dialogical activity as one of the possible ways of developing wisdom, understood here primarily in terms of dialectical thinking. The author explains the relationships between internal dialogical activity and dialectical thinking and describes the cognitive processes that accompany inner dialogs, related to imaginative thinking, attention management, metacognition, and the use of conceptual knowledge with ambiguous contents. The active involvement of these processes seems indispensable for achieving dialectic effects through dialogical activity, including the acceptance of contradictions and the integration of different viewpoints. The final part of the article discusses practical methods of supporting wisdom based on three manifestations of inner dialogical activity: identity dialogs, temporal dialogs, and dialogs simulating social interactions.

Keywords: wisdom; internal dialogical activity; dialogical self; dialectical thinking.


 

How to cite: Zadworna-Cieślak, M. (2017). The measurement of health-related behavior in late adulthood: The Health-Related Behavior Questionnaire for Seniors. Annals of Psychology, 20(3), 599-617. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.3-3en

 

Abstract: The current demographic processes invite an analysis of the lifestyle of people in late adulthood and its determinants. A thorough diagnosis of senior health is also needed, not only for the purposes of description and explanation, but also – above all – for the creation of health programs. The present study analyses the specificity of health behavior of people of senior age. It describes the Health-Related Behavior Questionnaire for Seniors (KZZ-S), a tool used to measure the health behaviors of seniors (i.e., people aged 60 and above), and presents its theoretical basis. The questionnaire has a five-factor structure, as revealed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. It consists of 24 items and allows the calculation of the overall rate of such health behaviors and behavioral categories as positive attitude to life, behavior related to physical health, attention to mental condition, behavior associated with prevention and treatment, and environmental behavior. A higher score indicates a higher level of behavior beneficial to health. In total, the participants in the study were 522 people diverse in terms of activity and life situation, and the aim was to determine the psychometric properties of the KZZ-S. The KZZ-S is a reliable and valid measure with satisfactory psychometric properties (Cronbach’s α was .87 for the whole test and ranged from .63 to .79 for its subscales; absolute stability determined by test-retest was .88).

Keywords: health behavior; measurement; late adulthood; seniors.


 

How to cite: Ziemiański, P. (2017). Does power corrupt or does it facilitate goal attainment? Dominance and functionalist perspectives in psychological models of power. Annals of Psychology, 20(3), 641-660. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.3-4en

 

Abstract: This article describes how psychological models of power adopt the dominance and functionalist perspective in examining the influence of power on power holders. According to the dominance perspective, power leads to a desire to increase dominance over others and has a negative and corruptive influence on the person holding it, whereas the functionalist perspective puts emphasis on how power aids the attainment of the power holder’s and the group’s goals and should therefore trigger processes helpful in goal attainment. The main object of analysis is the assumptions about how power influences social perception.

Keywords: power; psychological models of power; social perception.


 

How to cite: Klamut, R., Kantor, A. (2017). Democracy evaluation and its selected determinants in the context of the 2014 local elections in Poland. Annals of Psychology, 20(3), 681-699. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.3-5en

 

Abstract: The local elections that were held in November 2014 stirred up considerable controversy in Poland. The article is an attempt to describe how Poles evaluated the overall functioning of democracy in the context of these elections and what determinants significantly contributed to that evaluation. We examined three levels of democracy evaluation: general beliefs (Jost’s system justification), the current state of democracy (Dahl’s democratic institutions), and specific events connected with the functioning of the democratic system (the quality of the elections and the level of trust in the elected representatives). We also tested the extent to which these levels of democracy evaluation were explained by sociopolitical determinants, such as the general level of trust in people, patriotism and nationalism, or the experience of security. The study was conducted shortly after the second round of the election on a sample of 524 subjects. The obtained results show a low quality of democracy (particularly on the level of general beliefs and trust in the newly elected authorities) and reveal associations between aspects of evaluation and the investigated determinants.

Keywords: democracy evaluation; 2014 local elections; system justification; trust; patriotism; experience of security.

Autor: Ana Ivanova
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 11.04.2018, godz. 13:32 - Ana Ivanova