Andrzej SĘKOWSKI, Wojciech OTRĘBSKI (2000). Prof. Dr Hab. Tadeusz Witkowski FDP (1935-2000) - twórca lubelskiej szkoły psychologii rehabilitacji // Prof. Tadeusz Witkowski FDP (1935-2000). The Founder of the Lublin School of Psychological Rehabilitation Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 5-24.


Summary: The paper presents the lat Father Professor Tadeusz Witkowski – founder and for many years head of the Chair and Institute of the Psychology of Rehabilitation at KUL, prominent scholar and founder of the Lublin school of the psychology of rehabilitation.

The authors have shown more than thirty-year scientific activity of Father Professor: his research topics, his cooperation with scientific centres at home and abroad, and his participation in conferences and symposiums. The paper shows in more detail his didactic, organizational and social activity, especially his commitment and support, he had always given, for the disabled, his long-term cooperation with self-governmental and state institutions, with social organizations working on behalf of the disabled.

The list of Professor Witkowski’s publications includes author’s monographs, books edited by him, papers in learned magazines and collective works, and studies of diagnostic methods.



Jacek ŚLIWAK (2000). Społeczne i sytuacyjne uwarunkowania zachowań altruistycznych. Przegląd badań // Social Situational Conditions of Altruistic Behaviours a Review of Researches Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 35-47.


Summary: The paper is a review of findings pertaining to the links between altruism and social and situational variables. Altruism is taken here to mean a person’s activity on behalf of other people, an activity that is beneficial for them, without expecting any rewards in return. The person who is helping should be aware of that, his or her action must be free and must be a value in itself for that person.

The paper focuses our attention on the following social variables: the number of participants (observers) in some unlucky event; the fact whether the onlookers of the unlucky event know one another; observation of some charitable actions in the near past, rush, mood (transitory affective states), urbanization and age.

Taking into account the number of people, it turned out that the presence of others may diminish motivation for giving help. Moreover, the greater number of observers makes it that the event is perceived as less dangerous. This observation allows psychologists to formulate the effect of the “diffusion of responsibility”. Another factor, on which attention has been focused, is that the time during which help is given depends on whether the observers of the unlucky event know one another. When the observers of some unlucky incident are strangers, it may diminish their readiness to bring help. Those who had the opportunity to observe in the near past some charities, charitable actions, are more likely to adopt altruistic attitudes. Still another factor which affects giving help is rush and the goal of that rush, the importance of the goal they are to accomplish. Another variable affecting the readiness to bring help is mood (transitory affective states). It has been noticed that a sad mood causes in children a reduction in altruistic activities, and in adults the opposite effects, ie. they become more ready to be altruists.

Numerous researches on the influence of urbanization on the readiness to bring help have proved that inhabitants of villages and small towns are more altruistic than inhabitants of big towns. If it comes to sex, men are shown to be involved in other forms of help than women. The situations which demand courage, reflex and firmness are more specific of men, whereas women engage themselves to tasks related to concern, care and commitment.



Agata STĘPNICKA (2000). Podmiotowe aspekty „ja” a koncepcja siebie // The Subject-related Aspect of „Self” versus the Conception of Oneself Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 49-70.


Summary: The paper pertains to the relationship between the subject-related “Self” and the attributes of representation of one’s own person. This question is grounded on the selection of two elements of “Self”: “Self” as a knowing subject (self-as-knower) and “Self” as “Self” being known (the self-as known). The “Self” in its subject-related aspect means the acting individual as the subject of knowing, acting and controlling, whereas the “Self” in its objective meaning is expressed in knowing oneself. Now, organizing and interpreting experience, the subject-related “Self” is the foundation upon which human behaviours become integrated. It is also responsible for the formation of oneself, owing to which it refers to various aspects of the “Self” understood in its objective manner. The research comprised a 100 students and it sought to confirm, by way of empirical verification, the relationship between the functions of the subject-related “Self” and the conception of oneself.



Beata BAJCAR (2000). Wielowymiarowość osobistych koncepcji czasu // Multidimensionality of Personal Time Conceptions Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 71-93.


Summary: This paper presents results of an empirical study, that concerns structure of personal time conception. The main goal of this study was assignation set of dependences between individual minds about time nature. Results of empirical study shows that: personal time conception is multidimensional structure and there are existing casual dependences in this structure of personal time conception. From these results it appears that individual generates one`s own time conception. Origin of time conception has place in individual explanation system and ontological interpretation of time notion.



Stanisława TUCHOLSKA (2000). Psychologiczna analiza przemocy seksualnej wobec dzieci // A Psychological Analysis of Sexual Aid for Children Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 95-105.


Summary: The paper sought to analyze sexual abuse towards children, with particular emphasis on the dynamism of that phenomenon, its direct and further consequences. Clinical practice points that event accompanying sexual abuse towards a child in a family may be ordered according to the following stages: I – the stage of dependence (seduction), II – the stage of sexual interaction (acts), III – the stage of secret (concealment) IV – the stage of revelation, and V – the stage of suppression or solution. The course of particular stages is individualized and conditioned by various factors.

It has been established that the greatest consequences of sexual abuse occur when abuse is experienced before age 12; it lasts for a long time; there is a physical contact; aggression towards the child and accusation of the child; there is not support on the part of the parents, and there is no professional help for the child.



Mariola SKOWROŃSKA, Leszek SZEWCZYK (2000). Cechy osobowości a percepcja bólu u dzieci i nastolatków z psychogennymi bólami brzucha i bólami głowy // Personality Traits and Pain Perception in Chil­dren and Adoles­cents with Abdominal Pain and Head­ache Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 107-129.


Summary: The purpose of the study was to find out what is the relationship between pain perception and personality traits in a group of children (N = 34, age M = 10,49; SD = 1,33) and adolescents (N = 28, age M = 14,26; SD = 1,18) with abdominal pain and headache of psychogenic origin.

Three methods were applied according to the age of examined subjects: CPQ, HSPQ and VT-PPQ versions A, C. The obtained results indicate that this relationship mainly refers to certain temperamental traits and emotional state. This relationship manifests itself in adolescents more that in children.



Aleksandra JANKOWSKA (2000). Pamięć bodźców towarzyszących ekspozycjom własnej twarzy // Memory for the Coincidence of Our Own Face Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 131-142.


Summary: The present work is relevant to the way in which and suboptimal expositions of human faces – one’s own and unknown – influence the memory for the objects, which coincidences it. The procedure presented here is a modification of Murphy’s and Zajonc’s (1994) experiments by examining the lasting memory for neutral stimuli, primed by faces. The obtained results show that supraliminal (4 ms) expositions of the photographs of human faces increase a recognition of following these faces with quasi-Japanese ideograms, but there are no differences between the memory effects of priming by our own face and the unknown face. The supraliminal (1 s) expositions of our own face decrease the memory for ideograms. Moreover, the investigation shows that supraliminal presentations of human, neutral faces result in a worse memory for ideograms, following them than do supraliminal presentation of these faces.



Waldemar FRĄCKIEWICZ (2000). Percepcja twarzy: Schematy preferowane a rodzicielskie // The Perception of Face: The Preferred and Paren­tal Schemes Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 143-153.


Summary: With the help of five schemes the features of face in different positions to one another: the eyes, the mouth, and the beard, the relations between the preferred schemes of the features of the face and the schemes of parental face features were examined from the point of view of the perceiving subject.

The results point that evaluation in the context of heterosexual relations is linked with the patterns of the set of elements of parents’ faces. The relationship of evaluation with the patterns of parents’ faces, in the context of the relationship of cooperation, is less marked.



Dorota SZCZYGIEŁ, Alina KOLAŃCZYK (2000). Skala Poziomów Świadomości Emocji. Adaptacja skali Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale Lane’a i Schwartza // Adaptation of Lane’s and Schwartz’s Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 3, 155-179.


Summary: The paper presents adaptation of Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) created originally by Lane and Schwartz. According to their theory emotional awareness is a type of cognitive processing which undergoes five levels of structural transformation. LEAS is a written, projective instrument that asks subjects to describe her or his anticipated emotions and those of another person in each of 20 scenes described in 2 to 4 sentences. Scoring criteria allow to evaluate the degree of differentiation and integration of the words denoting emotions and the level of emotional awareness of the subject. Adaptation of the scale was conducted with a group of 113 subjects (aged – 19, equal number women and men) and group of 56 women (aged: 35 to 40). In order to establish reliability of the instrument three methods were used: 1) split-half reliability, 2) internal reliability and 3) test – retest reliability. All results obtained are showing high reliability of LEAS – PL. Validity of the scale was evaluated by showing its positive correlation with ALEX–40 (a questionnaire used for a measurement of alexithymia) and negative correlation with two verbal test of WAIS – R PL: Vocabulary and Comprehension. Construct validity was checked by group differences (women and men).

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 01.06.2013, godz. 09:11 - Karol Juros