ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


 

Jerzy BRZEZIŃSKI (2001). O usprawiedliwianiu nieetycznych praktyk badawczych, czyli o przewadze racji grupowych nad racjami jednostkowymi // On the Justification of Unethical Testing Practi­ces, or on the Prevalence of Group Reasons on Indivi­dual Reasons Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 53-71.

 

Summary: The paper focuses on some issues important for testing practices (taking into consideration not the methodological point of view, i.e. important for the researcher, but also the ethical one, i.e. important for the researcher and for the subject). The crucial point here is to answer the following three questions: 1 – Is the subject entitled to complete information about the purposes of the test and its actual course? 2 – What shall we do to minimize stress for the OUB? 3 – What does it mean that the OUB cannot in some circumstances refuse to be tested?

To answer these questions it was very helpful to analyze the documents that regulate the ethical context of a scientific test (documents: D-1 – D-6, see Bibliography). According to the author, the formulations of ethical codes allow for the researcher’s self-justification when he fails to abide by ethical standards.

 


 

Tomasz MARUSZEWSKI (2001). Kodowanie kolejności zdarzeń w pamięci autobiograficznej // Mechanisms of Events Ordering in Autobiographi­cal Memory Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 73-94.

 

Summary: Autobiographical memory is a representation of events from one’s personal past. A number of these events is great ant they occur in temporal order. The paper is an attempt to reconstruct psychological mechanisms responsible for ordering these events in memory. Four basic mechanisms of events ordering in autobiographical memory are considered. The first one consists in mechanical remembering of a sequence of events. Probably, it is rarely used, because it requires huge memory resources. The second mechanism refers to various time axes on which events are located. These axes possess units of different sizes. The smaller, unit the greater probability of error in location in time estimation. The third mechanism is based on a hierarchical organization of autobiographical memory – it assumes that information is registered within a hierarchical system. When you step from the general level to the concrete one, you are able to reconstruct a more precise order of events. The idea of the hierarchical organization of autobiographical memory proposed by Conway (1996) is used. The fourth group of mechanisms is based on cause-effect relationships. These events that are recognized as causes are considered as earlier than events considered as effects. An example of such mechanisms is inference based on actor-observer effect. Consequences of sequential ordering of representations in autobiographical memory for personal identity and continuity are finally discussed.

 


 

Andrzej FALKOWSKI (2001). Schemat poznawczy w kategoryzacji percepcyjnej // The Cognitive Scheme in Perceptual Categori­zation Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 95-118.

 

Summary: Perceptual categorization is a domain of the research on cognitive processes which combines perception with conceptual thinking. The paper discusses problems connected with the recognition of perceptual structures in the light of contemporary models of categorization. An analysis of a prototypical model, statistic and exemplary, has shown that various manners of operationalization of the concept of the recognition of structures, in respect of the assumed theory of the processes of categorization. The basic question here which a given theory is to answer is the following: does a man in the process of categorization creates or discovers a specimen most typical of a given class, as it is assumed in the prototypical model? Or, does it only memorize its particular specimen, which is in line with the assumptions of the exemplary model?

The characterization of the cognitive representation of perceptual category points that specimens belonging to a given class are much more similar to one another, than to the specimens of other categories. This seems understandable in the light of the physical structure of stimuli which constitute a category and sensorial limitations of man. However, in some empirical research it was shown that the perceived similarity between specimens is not constant, but it changes in respect of the manner of categorization. An analysis of the cognitive scheme has been presented here in the context of a statistic, prototypical, and exemplary model of categorization.

 


 

Robert MACKIEWICZ (2001). Uniwersalna teoria rozumowania? // Universal Theory of Reasoning? Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 119-134.

 

Summary: This paper deals with the problem of the so-called universal reasoning theory. First it presents two theories that claim to be universal in describing reasoning. Both are built on the algorithmic level what means that they have to specify the nature of mental symbols and the processes that operate upon them. The protagonists of the historically first theory, the mental rule theory, claim that reasoning requires building mental proofs for given arguments. Such proofs are syntactic in nature, and their steps resemble the use of rules known from courses on formal logic. The protagonists of the second theory say that reasoning consists of building mental models (hence the name: mental model theory) that correspond to different possibilities that may happen given the truth of the premises. Both theories seem to account for reasoning processes on the universal level, and yet this claim is too broad for both of them. As noted by Roberts (1993) both theories omit the problem of individual differences. However, the study of individual differences might shed a new light on the rules vs. model debate and provide important new data on the reasoning processes described on both algorithmic and higher levels (e. g. Anderson’s rational level).

 


 

Wojciech CWALINA (2001). Znaczenie emocji w procesach poznawczych człowieka. Analiza oddziaływania reklam politycznych na kształtowanie się preferencji wyborczych // The Role of Emotion in Human Cognitive Processes. An Analysis of the Influence of Political Advertisments on the Formation of Voting Preferences Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 135-164.

 

Summary: The paper deals with the role of emotion in the course of human cognitive processes. As stimuli eliciting these processes, television political advertising of candidates in Polish presidential election in 1995 were used.

Four general theoretical models of human affective-cognitive functioning are hypothesized: radical and moderate constructivism, and radical and moderate realism. These models were tested using structural equation modeling (so called path analysis). The results obtained support two models of human epistemic processes: moderate emotional-cognitive constructivism and radical emotional-cognitive realism. These models assume that emotional attitude toward a social object proceeds information processing related to this object.

 


 

Czesław S. NOSAL (2001). Perspektywa czasu na przełomie epok - szanse i zagrożenia rozwoju osobowości // Time Perspective at the End of the Century – Possibilities and Manaces in Perso­nali­ty Development Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 165-177.

 

Summary: In the essay various ways of time experience and differences in time perspective at the end of the Century are presented. The thesis is that our époque creates temporal framework in which personal and inner time ordering become more important than patterning time in external sources. Some predictions concerning opportunities and threats in personality development were formulated in the context of time psychology.

 


 

Tadeusz TYSZKA (2001). Kłopoty z myśleniem probabilistycznym // Problems with Probabilistic Thinking Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 179-191.

 

Summary: The paper outlines the development of the idea of probabilistic thinking in western culture and the discovery and development of research on probability. It quotes studies, which show that there might be cultural differences in tendencies to probabilistic thinking. Eventually, it discusses problems that people might have with probabilistic thinking. As research shows, our common sense thinking is in principle deterministic.

 


 

Piotr OLEŚ (2001). W kierunku integracji nauki o osobowości // Towards an Integrated Science of Personality Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 193-214.

 

Summary: Making an integrated science of personality, according to the proposals of McAdams (1996; 2001) and McCrae (1996), demands that personality should be taken as an object of research and theoretical reflection from three complementary perspectives: 1) the perspective rooted in the biology of the structure of traits, 2) a characteristic style of adaptation and motivation, 3) the processes of conferring meanings and creating the history of life. The specific character of the knowledge of personality is at the first level reflected by the theory of traits and behavioral genetics; at the second level by psychodynamic, sociobiological, cognitive, and humanistic theories; at the third level by the theory of script, narrative and existential conceptions. The complementary character of various approaches to personality has been underlined here, signaling some difficulties of integration, including definitional problems, different assumptions and theses, especially among the framework of cognitive psychology and psychodynamic conceptions. Some arguments have been given on behalf of the interrelationship between the variables from three distinguished levels of cognition. A postulate has been formulated to establish a non-eclectic theory of personality at a higher level of generality, meta-theory, constituting a level of agreement for the scholars who make use of different conceptual systems, and allowing to translate the results achieved at various fields.

 


 

Adam BIELA (2001). Specyfika pracy na stanowisku kierowniczym // Specific Requirements for Management Work Place Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 215-237.

 

Summary: This paper aims to specify the ergonomic requirements for management work positions. A theoretical framework was taken from the Jastrzębowski’s conception of ergonomics. Jastrzębowski is recognised as a founder of ergonomics as a scientific discipline (Jastrzębowski, 1857).

According to the Jastrzębowski’s conception the following four dimensions of ergonomics were considered to explore managerial work positions:

  1. managerial work as a good job, i.e. a praxeological dimension;
  2. managerial work as art and play, i.e. an esthetical dimension;
  3. managerial work as thinking, i.e. a cognitive dimension;
  4. managerial work as a devotion, i.e. a moral dimension.

Moreover, the paper proposes extending the moral dimension to the issues related with being a subject of one’s managerial work and strengthening a sense of being the subjects in the employees.

 


 

Zbigniew ZALESKI (2001). Umysł w pojęciach a emocje w ciele? // Mind in Concepts and Emotion in the Body Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 239-242.

 

Summary: The author discusses the plurality-or-unity of cognitive and emotional processes. The academic split of the these psychical systems has had advantages and disadvantages. Thus, there arise basic (ontological) and psychological questions concerning our scientific paradigm of thinking of and researching on cognition and emotion interdependence and interrelation.

 


  

Andrzej SĘKOWSKI (2001). Współczesne tendencje w badaniach wybitnych zdolności // Contemporary Tendencies in Research on Giftedness Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 243-255.

 

Summary: The article examines contemporary tendencies in the research of giftedness in both American and European psychology. The theory of Successful Intelligence by Robert J. Sternberg, which is supported by many, is being reviewed carefully, and the specific characteristics of analytical, creative and practical intelligence are presented. Some of the thesis needs to be verified empirically. The theory, however, is useful and might be beneficial not only in the basic study, but also in practical psychology. Primarily, the article describes characteristics of emotional and social functions of gifted students. The importance of both emotional and social development as well as purpose of experiments that take into consideration both aspects are emphasized. This article tries to define the most important task are being undertaken in the field of psychology of giftedness.

 


 

Marzenna ZAKRZEWSKA (2001). Poziom wykonania testów WAIS-R(PL) w różnych grupach wiekowych // The Level of Test Performance WAIS-R(PL) in Vari­ous Age Groups Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 4, 257-278.

 

Summary: In all versions of Wechsler’s intelligence scales for adults, with the exception of the last one (WAIS-III), the transformation of the raw scores into the scaled scores is made on the basis of the results of the so-called reference group, i.e. people aged 20-34. Wechsler chose this age limit, for the subject from that limit achieved highest performance in the majority of tests. This procedure allowed us to test the changes in various abilities caused by the age of the subjects. The paper sought to trace, whether and how, the level of the performance of Wechsler’s tests various for different age groups in comparison with the reference group in the Polish version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised WAIS-R(PL). The levels of performance have been analyzed, separately for each of the eleven tests constituting the scale WAIS-R(PL), profiles for the Full Scale, Verbal and Performance, and the profiles constructed on the basis of factor analysis of scales called Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization and Memory and Freedom from Distractability.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 01.06.2013, godz. 06:49 - Karol Juros