ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


  

Zenon UCHNAST (2002). Doświadczenie osobowe: przedmiot jakościowej nalizy personalistycznej // Personal experience: The object of qualitative personalistic analysis Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 5-25.

 

Summary: The present conception of personal experience has its foundations and sources of inspiration in the assumptions of W. Stern’s, G. W. Allport’s and R. May’s psychology, in E. Husserl’s and E. Stein’s phenomenological approach and in M. Heidegger’s existential analysis of human-existence-in-the-world.

The personal character of experience in psychology is especially explicitly defined when it is stressed that (1) the person has an experience of the self as of the cognizing subject; (2) the person has an experience of being both the subject and the object; (3) the person has an experience of the-world-he-lives-in, and (4) the person has an experience of an existential event.

In this context the belief is expressed that the distinguished aspects of personal experience may be the subject of a detailed analysis of empirical data collected in the form of written reports of an actual life event experienced by the person. Hence I suggest a procedure of qualitative analysis of life events that would be treated as a model, which I define - because of its assumptions - as qualitative personalistic analysis.

In the final part of the paper I present - as an example - an analysis of M. Heidegger’s own perceptive experience he described (of a blooming tree in the garden). The final result of this kind of analysis is a formulated individual and generalized structure of the described life event as a personal experience.

 


 

Piotr BRZOZOWSKI (2002). Uniwersalność struktury wartości: koncepcja Shaloma H. Schwartza // The universal character of the structure of values: Shalom H. Schwartz conception Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 27-52.

 

Summary: The article presents the Israeli researcher Shalom H. Schwartz’s conception of a universal structure of values, which is the most significant theory of values worked out in recent years. Schwartz convincingly tested it in cross-cultural studies carried out in several dozen countries belonging to all the most important cultural circles. According to Schwartz the contents of human values - and more precisely: the contents of rather general categories of values and relations between categories - are universal. The cause of their universal character is the uniformity of human condition determined by biological needs and social living conditions of individuals and societies. Schwartz argues that values may be classified according to the interests they serve. Realization of values may serve the interests of an individual, or a group, or both at the same time. This criterion led to distinguishing 10 universal categories of values: 1. directing oneself, 2. stimulation, 3. hedonism, 4. achievements, 5. power, 6. security, 7. adjustment, 8. tradition, 9. kindness, 10. universalism. The third criterion for classification of values is the rule of conflicts and agreement between them. Values are in conflict if they may not be realized at the same time, and in agreement - if this is possible. The last criterion allows distinguishing four meta-categories of values: consolidation of the I - transgressing the I - and being open to changes - conservatism.

In the article also studies are described that show systematic, foreseeable on the basis of Schwartz’s theory, connections between values, behaviours and attitudes.

Also some psychometric properties are given of the English version of the tool Schwartz uses for studies of values (Schwartz Value Inventory, SVI). They were assessed by means of analysis of structural equations.

 


 

Piotr OLEŚ (2002). Z badań nad wartościami i wartościowaniem: niektóre kwestie metodologiczne // Researches on values and valuation: Some methodological issues Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 53-75.

 

Summary: The article deals with some basic problems concerning human values and methodological problems arising in assessment of values. A fundamental distinction on objective and subjective values is taken as a starting point. For social sciences an subjectivistic point of view is the most common. However in psychology one can define two general ways of understanding human values: values as believes (conscious, cognitive structures) and values as intrinsic (unconscious) criteria of choice. As consequence one can analyse valuation on both levels: exploring preferences declared by people and examining preferences evident by their choices and behaviour. Methodological problems concerning measurement of values are mentioned: such as ipsativeness and mental processes of choice and valuation, social desirability, and simplifications in data interpretation. Past and current research trends are mentioned. Especially interesting research concern the process of valuation, defined as complex process of assessment and choice and in some theories even as meaning giving. Possible problems and disturbances in valuation are described and illustrated by research findings.

 


 

Maria LEDZIŃSKA (2002). Stres informacyjny jako zagrożenie dla rozwoju // Information stress as a threat to development Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 77-97.

 

Summary: The issue discussed in the article is an example of the problems that have become topical in connection with the social-economic changes at the turn of the century. Within humanities they are studied in the so-called paradigm of civilisation changes. In analyses the consequences of intensive development of sciences and technology are stressed, including computer technology. One of the results of the occurring changes is overproduction of information and considerable acceleration in the area of data transmission. The pressure of a lot of information coming from various sources appears to be a cause of stress, because of the limited possibilities of processing of information. The fundamental barriers are connected with functional properties of attention and memory.

When establishing a relation between information overflow and development it was stressed that mental regulation is done on three planes, comprising levels of information, knowledge and individual experience. Too much data first of all makes it difficult to transform information into knowledge. Moreover, constant stimulation makes it more difficult to systematize subjective experience, contributing to its fragmentation. Incoherent, loosely ordered personal experience does not properly fulfil regulating functions, which comprise orientation in one’s surroundings, planning and supervising realization of goals. Hence information stress ruins the foundations of development, making immediate mechanisms of coping with difficult situations appear in the place of purposeful activity.

 


 

Maria KLIŚ (2002). Wnioskowanie lingwistyczne a proces recepcji tekstu narracyjnego // Linguistic inference and the process of narrative text reception Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 99-113.

 

Summary: In the article theoretical considerations are presented that are supported by results of an empirical study of the ways of including linguistic inference processes into the process of understanding the text (e. g. Thorndyke, 1976). Also the discussion has been referred to that has been going on in the literature. It concerns the question of inborn character of the logic of the mind (e. g. Braine, 1994) vs. the ability to construe mental models of the meaning of situations described in the text (Johnson-Laird, 1983). The kinds of linguistic inference most often presented in the literature are shown, and the function of linguistic knowledge and knowledge concerning the world that limit the process of forming potentially possible inferences, are presented. Also empirical studies are shown that illustrate the fact that insufficiencies of the ability to infer make it difficult to construe a coherent mental representation of the text of the story.

 


 

Małgorzata SOBOL, Metafora jako sposób ekspresji postaw temporalnych // Metaphor as a way of expressing temporal attitudes Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 115-127.

 

Summary: The article is devoted to an analysis of temporal metaphors as a way of expressing attitudes towards time. Cognitive functions of this type of metaphors are pointed to, such as: expressing a complex phenomenon of the time in simpler terms, a new and sometimes original view of the time, rendering emotional relation to the time. Different kinds of metaphors are described: Knapp and Garbutt’s as well as Wessman and Ricks’s. Finally, results are quoted of selected studies of the relation between preference of temporal metaphors and other psychological variables, among others satisfaction with life and the need of achievement.

 


 

Andrzej SĘKOWSKI,  Bogumiła WITKOWSKA (2002). W kierunku typologii uwarunkowań postaw wobec osób niepełnosprawnych // Towards a typology of conditionings Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 129-144.

 

Summary: The article contains the results of empirical studies concerning the diagnosis of social attitudes towards handicapped people and conditionings of these attitudes. By means of Sękowski’s Scale of Attitudes Towards the Handicapped two extreme groups of people were selected: with negative attitudes and with positive ones. Next both groups were given a set of tests estimating the intelligence level, the level of creative abilities, preferences in the area of cognitive styles, preference of values and self-evaluation level. The study results revealed that people with positive attitudes towards the handicapped are characterized by higher intelligence, higher level of creative abilities, higher self-evaluation, they are more reflective, and they prefer social, moral, aesthetic and religious values. Factor analysis allowed distinguishing five factors that are predictors of positive attitudes and five factors that are predictors of negative attitudes towards handicapped people. This means that the type of the revealed attitude depends not only on individual personality traits but on configurations of those traits as well.

 


 

Iwona NIEWIADOMSKA (2002). Radzenie sobie ze stresem przez nieletnich // Coping with stress by the juvenileRoczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 145-159.

 

Summary: The article undertakes the problem of ways of coping with difficult situations by the juvenile.

The theoretical part is devoted to explanation of the phenomenon of the stressing situation and ways of coping in difficult situations that may significantly contribute to young people’s conflict with the norms of the penal code.

In the empirical part the results of the author’s own studies are presented. The specific character of problem solving by the juvenile is shown by a comparison of adaptation mechanisms in stressing situations in three groups: underage (N=30), well-adjusted youths (N=30) and convicts serving a prison sentence (N=30). Strategies of reacting to stress were studied by means of W. Janke, G. Erdhmannand W. Boucsein’s SVF. A psychological analysis of mechanisms of coping with stress by the juvenile as the factor explaining violation of the penal code norms that is undertaken in the article appears to be an important research task as learning about the process may help understand the disturbances of youth’s social adjustment. Studying this problem may also serve as a basis for undertaking adequate prophylactic and re-socialising actions directed at this group of people.

 


 

Ewa ZASĘPA (2002). Personalny wymiar religijności a struktura osobowości // The personal religiousness and the personality traits Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 161-179.

 

Summary: This article presents problem of relationship between the personal religiousness and the personality traits. 65 20-25 aged women were examined. The following techniques were used: Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) designed by R. B. Cattell, Personality Inventory NEO-FFI constructed by Costa and McCrae and Jaworski’s Personal Religiousness Scale. The results of the studies indicate to the persons with personal religiousness are more conservatism of temperament, more conventional, accepting personal unimportance, agreeableness, have more resistance to threat than persons with apersonal religiousness.

 


 

Ks. Jerzy SZYMOŁON (2002). Postawy prospołeczne a religijność // Pro-social attitudes and religiousness Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 5, 181-193.

 

Summary: The present article is a report on empirical studies of relations between pro-social behaviours on the one hand and personal religiousness as well as anxiety and fascination with God on the other. Pro-social behaviours are understood here as voluntary and unselfish actions undertaken in order to bring good and profit to other people who are in need. What is essential in them is the fact that they are not accompanied by expectation of external rewards (cf. Macaulay and Berkowitz 1970, p. 3). For measuring them J. Śliwak’s A-N Questionnaire was used. Personal religiousness was studied with R. Jaworski’s SRP (1989), and anxiety and fascination with God with J. Szymołon’s SliF (1999a). In the studies 100 USKW students took part (50 men and 100 women).

The obtained results confirm the hypothesis that pro-social behaviours are related to personal religiousness, filial anxiety and fascination. The closest relations are the ones with personal religiousness and the weakest with fascination. Slavish anxiety does not reveal such relations, but in the strict sense it also does not have a religious character.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 31.05.2013, godz. 21:16 - Karol Juros