ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


  

Ewa TRZEBIŃSKA, Tamara MIŚ, Izabela RUTCZYŃSKA (2003). Wielorakie JA i jedność tożsamości: ujęcie doświadczeniowo-analityczne // The multiple self and the unity of identity: An experiential-analytical approach Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 5-25.

 

Summary: The research addresses the issue of the pluralism of the Self. It has sought to answer the question how in the circumstances of having different Selves it is possible to preserve the unity of identity. Three experiments have been conducted to verify the hypothesis that a representation of one’s own person, either as a collection of separate structures or a collection of closely linked structures, may effectively buffer stress (Linvilles, 1985), if this organization appears in an appropriate area of self-knowledge. Students from various universities took part in these experiments, in total 440 subjects. Each experiment was designed to manipulate with the kind and organization of self-knowledge: the experiential or analytical self-image (Trzebińska, 1998) was activated in the form of separate or closely linked cognitive units. The subjects were exposed to various challenges and difficulties, and then their psychic stability was measured. The findings have shown that experiential knowledge organized as separate cognitive units and analytical knowledge, being a coherent whole, may effectively buffer stress, e. g. risk associated with the decision-making process and threat for self-evaluation (experiment 1), suffering attendant on failure (experiment 2), and fear of death (experiment 3). Thus it has been proved that the organization of each of the areas of self-knowledge is different, and it is interpreted as a natural property of the representation of one’s own person. Thereby it is possible to have at the same time a multiple and coherent identity.

 


 

Krzysztof MUDYŃ (2003). Subiektywność i wielość „subrzeczywistości” w ujęciu Williama Jamesa // Subjectivity and multiplicity of “sub-realities” according to William James Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 7-40.

 

Summary: In W. James’s studies the author seeks an answer to the question: What is/For whom is it real? The largest number of interesting suggestions one can find in the 21st chapter of his Principles of Psychology. Many of them are linked with somewhat different, although equally interesting question – when, under what circumstances, are we willing to treat a given “object” as something real. James say, among other things, about direction of attention, about the relation to self, triggering of emotions, and about sensorial values of such objects. The author of the paper emphasizes the current character of the problem of the „perception of realness. „ The intuitive solutions and proposals put forward by James can be empirically verified as well.

 


 

Agata SIEROTA (2003). Czynniki wpływające na osłabienie dążenia do sukcesu: „błędne koło" samoutrudniania // Factors that weaken the drive towards success: The “vicious circle” of self-impediment Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 41-57.

 

Summary: The paper focuses on the influence of parental attitudes and personality determinants (self-evaluation, self-image, approved values) on the drive towards success. The author draws on to the conception of self-impediment in S. Berglas and J. Jones, describing a tendency to self-impediment. as a trait that weakens the motivation for achievements.

The aim of the author’s own study was to create a model of essential factors that lower the drive towards success. The group under study consisted of 120 students at the age of 20-24.

The findings have confirmed the assumption that the tendency to self-impediment as an immediate expression of non-effective actions in task-taking situations is a more powerful modification of the level of the motivation of achievements than the remaining variables, such that react directly. The hypothesis of the „vicious circle” turned out to be correct. It points to a low level of the drive towards success, which is not only a cause, but also effect of the application of difficulties in task-taking situations.

On the basis of the analysis of multiple regression the models of the determinants of motivation for achievements in the case of men and women have been accomplished. A tendency to self-impediment is linked with low self-assessment, a tendency to self-abasement and subjugation and a high level of the need for changes. It considerably lowers self-perception as a person driving towards success in both sexes. The perception of parental attitudes (autonomy that is left to a child by its mother) essentially influences the motivation of achievements only in the case of men. The values that vary in terms of quality lowers the tendency to success in women and men. Only in women is there a direct link between low evaluation of values of the kind of achievement (sense of accomplishment, social approval) with a weak drive to success.

 


 

Agnieszka KULIK, Leszek SZEWCZYK (2003). Temperamentalne aspekty nieśmiałości u nastolatków // Temperamental aspects of shyness in teenagers Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 59-75.

 

Summary: The concept of shyness is being differently defined. Shyness is manifested in fearful inhibition of activity, especially in the presence of a larger group of people. This feeling seems to connected with the level of self-awareness and may be more intensive during adolescence.

The majority of researchers perceives the genesis of shyness in environmental influences, mainly familial. Some of them think, however, that shyness is genetically conditioned and focus on the role of individual traits of the nervous system as a disposition for shyness to be formed. A question can be posed: what temperamental traits may be a predicate of shyness in teenagers? A hypothesis has been assumed that shy persons should be characterized by high emotionality indicator, mainly dissatisfaction and fear, low level and activity and sociability. At the same time the structure of temperament in shy persons should be essentially different from the structure of temperament in non-shy persons.

The study has used the “Questionnaire for Pupils” by B. Harwas-Napierała (worked out by A. Kulik) and the Questionnaire of Temperament EAS by A. H. Buss ad R. Plomin in its version for adults. 204 subjects, aged 14-15, have been examined. The results of 171 subjects have been used in the study (18 shy subject, 32 non-shy subjects, 121 “average” subjects with regard to shyness).

The analyses of results dealt with an analysis of the structure of temperament and intensity of its particular dimensions and the definition of this type of temperament.

The results point to large differences between shy teenagers and their peers with regard to emotionality. The most characteristic trait of shyness is dissatisfaction, anxiety, susceptibility to frustration. Among the three types of temperament, what is characteristic of shy people is their emotionally excitable character, average motor activity, and moderate level of sociability.

 


 

Krzysztof JODZIO, Sabina LENART (2003). Poznawcze ujęcie zaburzeń pamięci operacyjnej w chorobie Alzheimera // Cognitive account of working memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 77-90.

 

Summary: The aim of this article is to discuss the nature of working memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We summarize the progress that has been made in the research on dementia-related deficits of selected components of working memory: central executive system, phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad. It is concluded that impairments in working memory (on span tests) are a common problem in course of AD. Specifically, patients with mild AD have an abnormality in attentional rather than linguistic aspect of memory processing. Nevertheless, much more disturbances of phonological processes at later stages of the disease may underlie comprehension deficits. It is also possible that impairments in AD patients’ long-term semantic memory is the primary deficit underpinning the reduced contribution of language to remembering. Memory problems can be treated as reliable indicator or contributor to the severity of dementia. Finally, we emphasize the need to differentiate AD into “sub-types” based on the presentation of short-term forgetting and its neuroanatomical correlates

 


 

Piotr KRZYWICKI (2003). Właściwości samowiedzy młodzieży z upośledzeniem umysłowym w stopniu lekkim oraz młodzieży nieupośledzonej // Properties of self-knowledge in adolescents with moderate men­tal retardation and non-re­tarded adolescents Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 91-114.

 

Summary: The main purpose of empirical study was to examine the characteristics of self-knowledge of adolescents with mild mental retardation and without mental retardation. The basic assumption was that cognitive self-assessment and self-esteem are made by the individual in the context of other persons relations and that the development of personal identity is the process characteristic for each human being independent of his/her level of intellectual functioning or any cognitive disorder. So the study was conducting according to the developmental approach to analysis of behaviour of adolescents with mental retardation. The content of self-knowledge of 40 adolescents with mild mental retardation and 40 without mental retardation was examined (Self-Knowledge Questionnaire – SKQ consisting of 50 items). As results show the level of self-knowledge is relatively high in both examined groups and the extremely high level – in the sphere of social self-knowledge – is characteristic for adolescents with mild mental retardation. The analysis of similarities and differences between two groups show that there are two different clusters of persons, i. e. with high and low self-knowledge, and that the level of cognitive ability is not a differentiating factor. The most important difference between two groups of adolescents is connected with internal structure of self-knowledge. In the group with mild mental retardation this structure is more rigid with the central point of social self-knowledge. The important conclusion is that the feeling of being different is very strong among mentally retarded adolescents.

 


 

Agnieszka KOZAK, Gustaw KOZAK (2003). Cechy osobowości i obraz siebie pacjentek z jadłowstrętem psychicznym (anorexia nervosa)// Personality traits and self-image in anorectic female patients Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 115-129.

 

Summary: The paper seeks to answer the question what personalities, personality traits, are connect with anorexia nervosa. In the beginning the paper characterizes anorexia as a disorder together with the descriptions of female personalities that we find in literature. In the test the Adjective Check List ACL by H. G. Gough and A. B. Heilbrun has been used in its Polish translation and adaptation by Z. Płużek. The respondents filled it in its „I am” version. The group of female patients with anorexia consisted of 50 girls (the diagnosis of anorexia in conformity with ICD-10), aged 15-27. The control group consisted of 50 healthy girls (no diagnosis of anorexia or any other psychiatric diagnosis), aged 15-28. The test was carried out in the period of two years 2000/2001. The findings point to statistically essential differences (p≤0, 005) with regard to some dimensions of self-image between anorectic patients and healthy people. Anorectic female patients obtained lower results in the following subscales of the test: Fav, Nur, Aff, Het, Exh, S-Cfd, P-Adj, Iss, Np, A-3. Essentially higher results for this group have been obtained in the following subscales: Aba, Crs, Ac, A-2. As regards the mean results in scales ACL, a profile of personality characteristic of anorectic patients has been presented. In the discussion, the results of the study have been compared with the results of other authors. On the basis of the analyses one may conclude that there are certain personality traits characteristic of anorectic patients: low self-assessment, criticism, self-control, persistence in accomplishing a goal, an ability to plan and organize actions, difficulties in establishing and maintaining steady ties with other people, sensitivity, and lack of self-confidence. The findings may serve as hints to search new solutions in therapeutic work and attempts to work out therapeutic steps.

 


 

Zenon UCHNAST, Kinga TUCHOLSKA (2003). Kompetencje temporalne – metoda pomiaru // Temporal competence – the method of measurement Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 131-150.

 

Summary: Temporal competence are manifested in having knowledge about one’s own past, presence, and future, and making use of its resources in coping with concrete circumstances. For this kind of competence, a factor tool of measurement has been worked out by the authors – a Questionnaire of Temporal Competence. The method consists of 64 items. in the result of the test six indicators are used: Life Openness, Sense of Life, Prospective Approach, Future Acceptance, Presence Acceptance, and a general indicator. The reliability of the method has been established in a group of 612 respondents – it is high. Diagnostic accuracy has been tested on the basis of 212 respondents tested by the following methods: W. Lens’s Questionnaire of Future Temporal Perspective, E. L. Shostrom’s Temporal Competence Scale, C. S. Nosal’s and B. Bajcar’s Questionnaire of Temporal Orientation AION-99, and A. Antonowski’s Questionnaire of the Sense of Coherence SOC-29.

 


 

Elżbieta CHMIELNICKA-KUTER (2003). Gry fabularne: prezentacja i psychologiczna analiza zjawiska na gruncie teorii wartościowania H. J. M. Hermansa // Feature games: Presentation and psychologi­cal analysis of the pheno­menon in H. Hermans's theory of valuation Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 6, 151-171.

 

Summary: Participation in feature games is one of the manifestations of imaginary activity. It consists in creating fictive figures, which become partners of internal dialogues. Hubert Hermans’s theory of valuation is a theoretical and methodological background for the research on this kind of phenomena. The theory belongs to the narrative trend in psychology.

The point of departure for the studies were the following questions: 1) relations between personality traits of the players and their experiences, and the properties and manner by which the experiences of their imagined figures were organized, 2) the importance of an imagined figure for the internal dynamism of the self. Fifteen participants of the feature games have been tested by means of H. Hermans’s Method of Confrontation with Self and Adjective Check List by H. G. Gough and A. B. Heilbrun. Thus obtained idiographic material allows us to conclude that the imagined person is a separate, although linked with the “self” of a person, centre of organization in self, and is an opportunity to explore new kinds of experience.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 31.05.2013, godz. 11:24 - Karol Juros