Od Komitetu Redakcyjnego // Editorial Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 7, 1, 5.


 

 

ARTYKUŁY // ARTICLES


  

Krystyna SKARŻYŃSKA (2004). Poszukiwać przyjaciół czy zdobywać majątek? Cele życiowe a zadowolenie z życia // Making friends or money? Life-goals and life satisfaction Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 7, 1, 7-31.

 

Summary: The aim of the two studies was to assess relations between the type of preferred life-goals (extrinsic goals, including material success, power, achievement and career vs. intrinsic goals, including love and friendship, family, being useful for others and obeying rules of religion), interpersonal trust, level of subjective somatic health and level of general life-satisfaction. The data was collected by means of standardised interviews conducted in a representative random sample of adult inhabitants of Warsaw (= 1004) and by e-mail – in a sample of students (= 112). The results of multiple regression analyses showed that extrinsic life-goals were not a significant predictor of the level of general life-satisfaction. Preferences for intrinsic life-goals were a significant predictor of general life-satisfaction level: those persons who strongly accepted intrinsic life-goals had higher level of life-satisfaction, even when levels of interpersonal trust, subjective somatic health, educational level and age of respondents were controlled. The results are consistent with research conducted by Kasser and Ahuvia (2002) and by Skarżyńska (2002), suggesting that some types of values (or life-goals) may be associated with well-being.

Słowa kluczowe: cele wewnętrzne, cele zewnętrzne, zadowolenie z życia, zaufanie do ludzi, subiektywne zdrowie.

Key words: intrinsic goals, extrinsic goals, life satisfaction, interpersonal trust, subjective somatic health.

 


   

Robert MACKIEWICZ (2004). Wnioskowanie z przesłanek prezentowanych w różnej kolejności. Empiryczna weryfikacja przewidywań teorii modeli umysłowych // Reasoning from promises presented in different orders. Empirical verification of the mental model theory Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 7, 1, 33-56.

 

Summary: The aim of conducting research was to investigate how naive reasoners draw inferences from three premises presented one at a time on a computer screen. According to the mental model theory of reasoning those orders of the premises that call for construction of multiple models should be harder that orders calling for a single model that is only updated with the information from subsequent premises. This prediction was corroborated by means of both accuracy and reaction times in the experiment in which participants were free to draw their own conclusions. It also turned out that drawing conclusions from disjunction inferences with a positive categorical was more difficult that drawing conclusions from inferences with a positive categorical. Also inferences containing two disjunctions proved to be harder than disjunction and conditional inferences.

Słowa kluczowe: kolejność informacji, rozumowanie, teoria modeli umysłowych.

Key words: order of information, reasoning, the mental model theory.

 


  

Andrzej SĘKOWSKI, Bogumiła WITKOWSKA (2004). Psychologiczna analiza postaw pracowników domów pomocy społecznej wobec mieszkańców z zaburzeniami psychicznymi // Psychological analysis of attitudes observed among social care homes employees towards dwellers with mental disorders Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 7, 1, 57-75.

 

Summary: Research results presented in the article focus on the correlation between attitudes towards people with mental disorders and chosen personality traits. Research involved 150 people – employees of social care homes. Job characteristics and the nature of contact with social care homes dwellers constituted the criterion for placing the analysed person into one of the subgroups. Three subgroups of equal size have been recognised: employees at social – therapeutic department(I), medical staff (nurses) (II), economic department employees (III). The following methods have been used: The Scale for Defining Attitudes Towards People with Mental Disorders, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Study of Values by G. W. Allport, P. E. Vernon, G. Lindzey, Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory by C. D. Spielberger, J. Strelau, M. Tysarczyk, K. Wrześniewski, The Questionnaire: ”What are you like?” by P. Sears. Within the analyzed group people from subgroup I manifested the most positive attitudes, people from subgroup II were slightly less favourably inclined, and people from subgroup III showed the least positive approach. The application of multiple regression equation showed that among the analysed variables trait anxiety has significant meaning for the type of attitudes both in group I and II. In subgroup III a significant influence on manifested attitudes is exerted by the following variables: economic values, intellectual level, artistic values and trait anxiety.

Słowa kluczowe: postawa, zaburzenia psychiczne, domy pomocy społecznej.

Key words: attitudes, mental disorders, social care homes.

 


  

Stanisław GŁAZ SJ (2004). Wybrane determinanty przeżyć religijnych // Selected determinants of religious experiences Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 7, 1, 77-99.

 

Summary: Some psychologists believe that there is some correlation between gender or the choice of a university and religiousness of an individual, the intensity of the effects of a religious experience, coping with stress and a sense of security. It is also thought that many factors such, as the background of a person, their upbringing, their religious attitude, maturity and sense of security can have an influence on the intensity of religious experiences over life.

Research was carried out in a group of 150 students. All of them described themselves as believers and did report religious experiences in their lives. 134 properly filled in questionnaires were used for the analysis. There were 33 men from the University of Economy, 37 men from the Forestry Faculty of the Academy of Agriculture, 32 women from Ignatianum University in Krakow and 32 women from Vocational High School in Nowy Sącz. The age of the subjects was within the range of 22 to 25 years.

The author of the article, interested in the issues of the sense of security, coping with stress and religious experiences of the students of various universities has tried to answer the following questions: Does the independent variable, gender differentiate (influence) the level of the sense of security, the effects of religious experiences of God’s presence or absence, and coping with stress? Which of the independent variables identified in Ways of Coping Questionnaire (and to what extent) have an influence on the dependent variables; the sense of effects of the experience of God’s presence (OB) and the sense of effects of the experience of God’s absence (NOB)? The results show that gender has a definite influence on differentiation of the dependent variables. It should be emphasised that when the regression analysis is applied one can notice that essential independent variables of religious character have the most tangible influence on the dependent variables. However, mainly the former ones decide about the intensity of religious experiences of an individual.

Słowa kluczowe: przeżycie religijne, stres, poczucie bezpieczeństwa.

Key words: religious experience, stress, sense of security.

 


  

Anna HUNCA-BEDNARSKA, Marek MASIAK (2004). Zastosowanie Testu piramid barwnych K. Warnera Scheie i Roberta Heissa do oceny sfery emocjonalnej chorych na schizofrenię // Diagnostic value of Warner Schaie’s and Robert Heiss’ Color Pyramid Test for evaluation of schizophrenic patients’ emotionality Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 7, 1, 101-120.

 

Summary: The aim of the work was the evaluation of formal emotionality features of patients suffering from paranoic schizophrenia in comparison with healthy people. It was assumed that emotionality can be described by means of measurements (excitation, arousal, pleasure – displeasure) and that it is a self-regulating system constituting the background on which other, more complex emotional phenomena can be examined. The emotionality system was examined by means of Schaie and Heiss’s Colour Pyramid Test. The whole range of colour choices belonging to the so called syndromes has been analyzed (the normal syndrome, the stimulation syndrome, the drive syndrome, the achromatic syndrome, the turmoil syndrome). What was also examined was the so called sequential formula reflecting the range and stability of the choices. 72 persons suffering from schizophrenia and 49 healthy persons were examined. The schizophrenic patients were choosing achromatic tints for pretty pyramids more often, whereas the normal syndrome was less frequent. Healthy persons were choosing disorganization colours for ugly pyramids. The results have been interpreted as the indicators of the distortions of the emotional system on the level of evaluation and arousal. More differences appeared in the construction of ugly pyramids which may be explained by the reduced control of behaviour. Sex appeared to be another significant variable. Women reacted in a more conventional way (especially the healthy ones); they more frequently expressed their disapproval of disorganization and desire colours in comparison with men. On the other hand, women suffering from schizophrenia, were choosing stimulating colours for ugly pyramid (as if protecting themselves from the excessive stimulation) more frequently than the healthy ones. The analysis of the so called sequential formula has shown that sick persons were characterized by emotional inflexibility and the tendency towards reducing the range of their own reactions.

Słowa kluczowe: emocjonalność, schozofrenia, Test Piramid Barwnych.

Key words: emotionality, schizophrenia, Color Pyramid Test.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 31.05.2013, godz. 08:08 - Karol Juros