ARTYKUŁ DYSKUSYJNY // FOCUS ARTICLE


 

Teresa RZEPA (2005). Psychologowie o sztuce życia / / Psychologists about the art of living. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 8, 1, 7-22.

Summary: In the article the author presents: (1) Charlotte Buhler's (who was the very first person exploring human development in a life-span perspective) message concerning the meaning of life understood as "giving" one's own life to someone or something (e.g. ideas, values); (2) examples of bringing this message into life as revealed by some psychologists' scientific biographies (Xymena Gliszczyfiska, Antonina Gurycka, Maria Jarymowicz, Maria Przetacznik-Gierowska, Lidia Wołoszynowa, Edward Franus, Tadeusz Gałkowski, Bozydar L. J. Kaczmarek, Stanisław Mika, Kazimierz Obuchowski, Jan Strelau, Włodzimierz Szewczuk, Ziemowit Włodarski).
Key words: meaning of life, autobiographies of psychologists

 



Hanna  BRYCZ (2005). Spostrzeganie tendencyjności we własnym zachowaniu: wyznaczniki sytuacyjne / / Perceiving biases in one's own behaviour: Situational determinants. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 8, 1, 23-42.

Summary: Three independent studies verified the hypothesis that situational factors influence naive theories of one's own biases. The following situational factors were taken into account: authority level, reward, anxiety level, semantic or episodic memory. The accuracy of the perception of one's own biases was measured in all three studies. The results demonstrated that situational factors played a modest role in the accurate perception of one's own biases. The valence of biases showed the strongest impact on the accuracy of perception: higher accuracy was observed with respect to the biases that testify positively for the subject when compared to the biases that are negative.
Key words: accuracy, biases, situational factors increasing accuracy, semantic and episodic memory, reward, authority.

 



Iwona MADEJ (2005). Struktura skojarzeniowa znaku towarowego w marketingowej strategii jego rozszerzania / / The brand associative structure in the marketing strategy of brand extension. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 8, 1, 43-62.

Summary: Nowadays, one of the widely popularised marketing strategies is brand extension, which means marking new products with an existing brand. The efficiency of this strategy can be improved by means of a change introduced into the brand association structure which consists in neutralizing negative associations with the extended products. In this study on associations with Palmolive brand, the method of associative affinity index developed by Klein and Kernan (1988) and the methodology of examining the affinity between the original product and the extended products of the same brand developed by Aaker and Keller (1990) have been used. This study supports the results of Aaker and Keller's empirical analyses which indicate that in order to develop effective strategies of brand extension, the analysis of associations should be combined with examination of category affinity between the products that are given the same brand.
Key words: brand extension, associative structure of a brand, notional structure of consumption products, transfer of associations, categorical affinity of the same brand products, neutralizing negative associations.

 



Aneta MALISZEWSKA (2005). Afekt i poznanie w etnocentryzmie konsumenckim / / Affect and cognition in consumer ethnocentrism Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 8, 1, 63-80.

Summary: This article examines purchase intention of products perceived as Polish or foreign among consumers with high and low levels of ethnocentrism. The author focuses on the affective and cognitive components of the attitude toward the products and their influence on purchase intentions. 100 people completed the study. The respondents ranged in age from 18 to 80, approximately half were men. Six different brands of packaged goods were used in the study. Three of them had names that were perceived as Polish; the other three products were perceived as foreign. The results of this study show a greater influence of the affective component on purchase intention. This was observed however only among consumers with high level of ethnocentrism and also when they perceived products to be Polish. A greater influence of cognition on purchase intention was observed among respondents with high level of consumer ethnocentrism and when they perceived products to be foreign. Also among consumers with low ethnocentrism regardless of the perceived origin of the products.
Key words: consumer ethnocentrism, affect, cognition, purchase intention, verbal trademarks.

 



Małgorzata TATALA, Maria MAŃKOWSKA (2005). Uczucia religijne dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym w świetle ich własnych wypowiedzi oraz w percepcji ich matek / / Religious feelings in preschool children in self-reports and in reports of their mothers Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 8, 1, 81-104.

Summary: The study concerns religious feelings in preschool children as reported by the children and by their mothers. 90 children at the ages 4, 5 and 6 were studied by means of a picture method and interviews with their mothers were carried out. The paper includes a contents analysis of the representations of religious feelings in children as well as a comparison of the data from children and their mothers with the focus on both the contents and the way of expressing the feelings reported. The relationships between positive and negative feelings are discussed and more detailed statistical analysis was applied to negative feelings. It was found that on the level of general tendencies the both sources of reports concerning children's religious feelings showed similar quality. A more detailed analysis discovered certain minor differences, however, the data from the two sources were complementary rather than contradictory.
Key words: religious feelings, preschool age.

 



Dorota TURSKA (2005). Kreatywność prymusów gimnazjalnych / / Creativity in the best students of junior high schools Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 8, 1, 105-120.

Summary: The study builds on the results of empirical research demonstrating that highly appraised junior high school students are less creative than their peers with poorer school achievements. Junior high school was supposed to be the school of 'new education philosophy' teaching to 'solve problems creatively in order to prepare students to work in the changeable environment of the modern world' (assumptions of the Ministry of National Education, The Library of Reform, 1999, p. 11). If the ministerial conception were to come true in the educational practice then the most highly evaluated junior high school students should be convinced about the usefulness of creative behaviours. Objective effects of the stimulation of creative thinking could also be expected to occur. The results of the study unequivocally disprove both these suppositions. The paper suggests a possible explanation for the diagnosed condition.
Key words: creativity, the best students, the lower secondary school.

 



Jacek ŚLIWAK (2005). Altruizm i jego pomiar. Kwestionariusz A-N / / Altruism and its measurement - The Questionnaire A-N. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 8, 1, 121-144.

Summary: The paper focuses on the issue of the measurement of the intensity of altruistic behaviours. An altruistic behaviour is understood as a conscious and voluntary act for the benefit of other persons. The performer does not expect any external rewards since providing aid is a value itself. Measurement of altruistic behaviours has two traditions in the relevant literature. One is associated with experimental research concerning social situations, the other is connected with testing based on self-reports. This paper resorts to the latter tradition and describes the process of constructing a questionnaire to measure altruism. Before constructing the questionnaire other similar existing tools were reviewed (cf. Karylowski 1982a; Szuster 2002). The Questionnaire A-N consists of two parts. Part one contains nine stories, each with six answers provided to reflect various degrees of intensity of the altruistic attitude. Part two contains eight stories. In part two, the examined person has to indicate on the 7-point Likert-type scale to what extent he/she agrees with the decision made by a character of each story. The total score is the sum of the scores obtained in both parts. It can range from 17 to 110, where the lower pole indicates lack of altruism and the higher pole - the highest level of altruism. The article presents psychometric properties of the questionnaire - its reliability and validity. The results show that this questionnaire is a valid tool in predicting a wide range of altruistic behaviours and reliability coefficients also prove its high reliability.
Key words: altruism, measure of intensity of altruism, experimental research of altruism based on self-description.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 31.05.2013, godz. 07:37 - Karol Juros