1. Wielopostaciowość emocji. Główne problemy

Tomasz Maruszewski


Polymorphism of emotions. Main problems

Abstract. Problems of internal structure and organization were considered in the light of emotion theories. Emotions are multicomponent processes both when analyzed in terms of mentan processes and when considered in terms of the changes in body functions accompanying them. The deficiency of emotion research is that they refer only to a small fragment of emotional processes. Emotion regulation theories constitute the basis for a new approach to emotions – the conception of emergence. This approach assumes that changes taking place on one level of an emotional process lead to the emergence of new forms of organization on higher levels. These new forms cannot be reduced to phenomena that existed on lower levels. Such an approach makes it possible to solve the problem of linking different levels of emotion analysis, starting from the neurochemical level and finishing with the social one.


2. Wpływ wdzięczności na dobrostan – specyfika i ograniczenia

Eufrozyna Gruszecka


The influence of gratitude on well-being: Specifity and limitations

Abstract. This paper presents two studies that explore the relationship between gratitude and well-being as well as the limitations of this relationship. The aim of Study 1 was to test whether gratitude intensifies the sense of happiness and to explore specific ways in which gratitude contributes to the overall sense of happiness. In my study I made use of different hedonistic and eudaimonic measures of well-being and compared the impact of gratitude and joy on the participants’ levels of happiness (joy being the predominant emotion in gratitude). The subject of Study 2 was the relationship of agentic and communal orientation – both in their moderate and uninhibited versions – with gratitude. I also explored how gratitude affects people with high and low levels of these orientations, respectively. I expanded the study to include a comparison of the effects of gratitude (which is a testament to having realized comumunion goals) with the effects of personal success (which is a testament to having realized agentic goals) in people with different levels of agentic and communal orientation. The results of the studies confirm the cause and effect relationship between gratitude (and joy) and psychological well-being. The results of my studies also suggest that gratitude may intensify happiness in ways that are peculiar to this emotion. The results of Study 2 further suggest that gratitude and personal success are equally important to the sense of happiness – regardless of whether a person has an agentic or communal orientation. Nonetheless, the results show that people with high levels of uninhibited agentic orientation are happier when they achieve personal success than when they experience gratitude, and gratitude itself brings them less happiness than it does to those with a low level of this orientation.


3. Osobowość, orientacja pozytywna i wiara w sprawiedliwy świat w odczuwaniu zawiści i Schadenfreude

Aneta Przepiórka, Agata Błachnio


Personality, positive orientation, and belief in a just world in the experience of envy and Schadenfreude

Abstract. Envy and Schadenfreude are social emotions usually regarded as unacceptable. The main objective of the study was to determine how personality and certain beliefs (self-esteem, belief in a just world) are related to self-reported envy and Scha- denfreude. The participants in the study were 973 people with a mean age of 21.98 years. The following questionnaires were used: the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, Positive Orientation Scale, and the Global Belief in a Just World Scale. We also used scenarios to measure envy and Schadenfreude. It was found that envy and Schaden- freude negatively correlated with personality traits: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness. Moreover, both emotions correlated negatively with positive orientation. Envy correlated negatively with the belief in a just world for self, and Schadenfreude correlated positively with the belief in a just world for others.


4. Trudni klienci jako źródło stresu pracowników usług – mediacyjna rola negatywnych emocji

Dorota Szczygieł


Difficult customers as a source of stress among service workers: The mediating role of negative emotions

Abstract. The article presents the results of a study conducted among service workers (N = 189, including 87 women) who work in a direct contact with customers. The study was designed to examine the effects of stressful customers behaviors, employees’ affective traits (i.e., dispositional negative and positive affectivity) and affective states (i.e., negative and positive emotions experienced during interactions with customers) on stress. It was hypothesized that stressful customers behaviors (i.e., disproportionate customer expectations and negative attitudes revealed by customers in their dealings with employees) are related to employees stress and their emotions experienced during interactions with customers. It was also predicted that emotions experienced by employees would mediate the association between stressful customers behaviors and employees stress. The results showed positive correlations between employees stress, stressful customers behaviors and negative emotions experienced by employees. Stressful customers behaviors were positively related to negative emotions experienced by employees. Stressful customers behaviors and positive emotions were unrelated. It was also observed that only negative emotions mediate the relationship between stressful customers behaviors and employees stress. The mediating role of positive emotions was not confirmed. These effects were observed beyondthe negative and positive affectivity of the employee.


5. Geneza ładunku emocjonalnego oraz sposób przetwarzania słów modyfikują postrzegane prawdopodobieństwo wystąpienia sekwencji losowych

Kamil Imbir


The origin of emotion and processing mode modify the perceived probability of random sequences

Abstract. Cognitive biases are phenomena that reveal a lot about the mechanisms of functioning of the mind. Their observation made it posible to formulate the dual-mode models of the mind, which compare and contrast two distinct mental systems working in an automatic or controlled fashion. Both systems can underlie the formation of emotions of various origins: automatic or reflective. A frequent cognitive bias is one based on treating a sequence of results as “more or less probable” depending on how closely this sequence resembles a prototypical random one. The mechanism of this bias is based on assessing the similarity of the outcomes to the process itself. The aim of the study was to examine whether the type of processing and the emotional properties of words can change the perceived probability of a particular sequence. The study involved 300 students (150 women) of various Warsaw universities. At the beginning, the respondents read a list of words differing in valence (negative vs. positive) and origin (automatic vs. reflective). In the control condition, neutral words were used. The task was to write the first association (associative processing mode) or to write a sentence including three consecutive words (systematic processing mode). The manipulation was proved to be effective in modifying the participants’ mood. After completing the manipulation, the participants were asked to evaluate two sequences of coin tosses and write down the probability of each sequence. The mathematical probability of sequences was the same for both cases. It turned out that in the case of the sequence that did not resemble random process outcome, the origin of the words influenced results. After reading the words of automatic origin, the participants evaluated this sequence as less likely compared to the respondents who had read words reflective in origin.


6. Sprawozdania


Wioleta Boruch
Sprawozdanie z VI Ogólnopolskiej Konferencji Bliżej Emocji



Wioleta Boruch
Report from the 6th National Conference “Closer to Emotions”

Autor: Barbara Cichy-Jasiocha
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 06.10.2016, godz. 17:06 - Barbara Cichy-Jasiocha