PRZEGLĄD PSYCHOLOGICZNY 2016, TOM 59, NR 3

 

1. O potocznych sposobach rozumienia demokracji i poparciu dla demokracji w Polsce lat transformacji systemowej

Krzysztof Korzeniowski

On colloquial ways of understanding democracy and support for democracy in Poland in years of system transformation

Abstract. Research carried out in new democracies and nondemocratic countries shows that the term “democracy” is well known but the concept of democracy is sometimes understood incompatibly with its dictionary definitions. The article presents the results of psychological and sociological research conducted in Poland from 1993 until 2010. It was found that, apart from colloquial definitions consistent with dictionary definitions, the understanding of democracy as a welfare state was clearly articulated. It turned out that democracy was also understood as a religious state or a state cultivating national values. The author’s two studies showed that these colloquial meanings can becombined with each other into hybrid meanings of democracy (e.g., democracy as a welfare religious state). Data suggest that the prevalent ways of understanding democracy might be dictated by the current shape of the political scene. The diversity of the ways of understanding democracy was explained, firstly, by the substantial complexity of democracy itself, making it difficult to “mentally grasp,” and, secondly, by the prevalent subjective notions of “good state,” such as welfare state or national state. Such situations seemed to be obvious in new democracies. The results presented confirm the recommendation that, in order to be valid, research into support for democracy should take into consideration the colloquial ways in which democracy is understood by ordinary people.

 

2. Równoważność pomiarowa skali Doświadczeń w Bliskich Związkach (DBZ-R i DBZ-RS) w grupach zróżnicowanych pod względem wieku, płci oraz bycia w związku intymnym

Katarzyna Lubiewska, Ewa Wojtynkiewicz, Karolina Głogowska, Kinga Mickiewicz, Cezary Wiśniewski, Paweł Izdebski

 

Measurement equivalence of the experience in Close Relationships-Revised scale (ECR-R and ECR-RS) in groups differentiated by age, gender, and being in an intimate relationship

Abstract. The Experience in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) is one of the most popular self-report instruments assessing adult attachment based on avoidance and anxiety indicators. Although the scale is used in Poland, its psychometric properties are not well documented. We set out to estimate measurement equivalence (invariance) in groups of adults differentiated by gender, age, and being in an intimate relationship. The sample was composed of 781 adults between the age of 16 and 81. MGCFA was used to test the construct, measurement unit, and scalar invariance. Two versions of ECR-R were tested: the 36-items scale and the short 16-item version. The results revealed full measurement invariance in comparisons between the analyzed groups, with one exception. We found item bias when comparing younger and older adults, but it was still possible to establish partial scalar equivalence. A comparison of the means between groups unfolded that males were more insecure than females and, in line with previous research, that older adults were less anxious than younger adults.

 

3. Zaufanie: sposoby ujmowania zjawiska i jego typologie

Anna Jaklik, Mariola Łaguna

 

Trust: Conceptualizations and typologies

Abstract. Trust in relations between people, institutions, and countries has been a subject of interest for various disciplines of science. The paper presents an analysis of the ways of understanding the phenomenon of trust, and the aim of the analysis is to organize this area of research definitionally and theoretically. We present the ways in which trust is defined in various disciplines of science. Based on an analysis of these disciplines, we propose a definition taking into account the most important aspect of the phenomenon. We also discuss the typologies of trust in interpersonal relationships, differentiating its context, target, relations between partners, and underlying resources. The multidisciplinary account of the phenomenon may serve as a broader background for psychological analyses and a point of departure for designing empirical research on trust.

 

4. Adaptacja skali Stadiów Gotowości do Zmiany i Chęci do Podjęcia Terapii (SOCRATES). Badania pacjentów oddziałów terapeutycznych dla skazanych uzależnionych od alkoholu i innych środków psychoaktywnych

Sebastian Lizińczyk

 

Adaptation on the stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). A study of patiens of therapeutic wards for inmates addicted to alcohol and other psychoactive substances

Abstract. Inmates addicted to alcohol or other psychoactive substances are directed to prison therapeutic wards. The very institution of prison and the population of imprisoned people imply the selection of appropriate methods and therapeutic interventions. Prisoners’ frequent reluctance and lack of motivation to work on their addiction focused the therapeutic work primarily on enhancing their motivation to change. At the same time, the number of standardized instruments and methods available for testing and estimating the level of motivation to change is insufficient. The participants in the study were 1,620 prison inmates addicted to alcohol or other psychoactive substances. The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) was used to measure the level of motivation in the process of changing behaviour related to substance abuse. The research on a Polish population of prisoners allowed for estimating the three-factor structure of the instrument, determining its psychometric properties as well as standards adapted to the Polish conditions. Further more, the dynamics of change in consecutive stages – problem recognition, ambivalence, and taking action – was empirically confirmed. Significant differences among the participants were found, depending on the type of addiction diagnosed. The significance of problem recognition and ambivalence to addicts’ counter measures has been confirmed.

 

5. Postawy wobec homoseksualizmu

Andrzej Margasiński

 

Attitudes towards homosexuality

Abstract. The paper sets out to present research results concerning attitudes towards homosexuality obtained with a tool of my own design called the Attitudes Towards Homosexuality Scale. The conceptual model presented identifies 5 attitudes: neutral, anxious, discriminatory, critical, and supportive, which are reflected by the corresponding scales in the tool. Psychometric analyses have shown that the scales in the model have acceptable reliability and construct validity. The study was carried out on a large sample of 1,828 respondents in 4 groups: students, university students, working people, and seniors. The results demonstrate a similarity in attitudes in most of the groups except for female middle and secondary school students, who differed in a statistically significant way, scoring low on anxiety and criticism while being more supportive. Carried out on a large sample, the study allowed for the calculation of provisionalsten norms for each group, while cluster analysis demonstrated that three attitudes towards homosexuality exist: neutral-critical, anxious-discriminatory, and supportive.

 

6. Recenzje


Dominik Gołuch
Jan Felicjan Terelak, „Psychologia kierowców pojazdów drogowych. Teoria
i stan badań”, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego 2015, ss. 318

 

Reviews

 

Dominik Gołuch
Jan Felicjan Terelak, „Psychologia kierowców pojazdów drogowych. Teoria
i stan badań” [“The psychology of road vehicle drivers. Theory and the state of research”] Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego 2015, ss. 318


7. Sprawozdania


Zbigniew Małysz
VIII Piknik Zdrowia Psychicznego Warszawa, 10 października 2015 roku

 

Reports

 

VIII Piknik Zdrowia Psychicznego Warszawa, 10 października 2015 roku
[8th Mental Health Picnic, Warsaw, 10 October 2015]

 

 

Autor: Barbara Cichy-Jasiocha
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 11.01.2017, godz. 11:29 - Barbara Cichy-Jasiocha