How to cite: Filip, A.,Białek, A., Białecka-Pikul, M. (2017). Recursion as a common ground of mental, communicative, and linguistic processes. Annals of Psychology, 20(4), 723-743. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.4-1en


Abstract: For nearly twenty years there has been an ongoing debate in international journals concerning the recursiveness of human mental processes. The main instigator of the debate and at the same time the main exponent of the term “recursion” is Noam Chomsky. According to him, recursion is an exclusive property of the syntax of the so-called “internal language of mind” (I-language). This conclusion has been contested by researchers claiming that recursion can also be observed in: communication, theory of mind, the syntax of complementation, or pragmatics. The article presents some arguments in favor of understanding recursion as a common ground of all the above phenomena as long as they are analyzed from a developmental perspective, with the dynamics and sequentiality of the constantly occurring processes and changes taken into account.

Keywords: recursion; theory of mind; syntax; pragmatics; development


How to cite: Cichoń, E., Kryciński, R., Florkowski, M., Szczepanowski, R. (2017). Metacognition increases the severity of depression through trait anxiety in a nonclinical population. Annals of Psychology, 20(4), 761-774. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.4-2en


Abstract: Previous studies show that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs may constitute the psychopathological core of anxiety and depression. Recent findings also indicate that anxiety exacerbates the severity of depression. We investigated the hypothesis that anxiety mediates the relationship between faulty metacognitive beliefs and depressive symptoms in normal subjects. Two hundred and eight normal participants completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We performed mediation analysis to explore the relationships between metacognition, depression, and trait anxiety as a mediator. Our study showed that positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger, low cognitive confidence, and negative beliefs about the need to control thoughts, and cognitive self-consciousness were mediated by the level of anxiety associated with the severity of depression. Moreover, the mediation analysis indicated that only cognitive confidence beliefs directly influenced the intensity of depressive symptoms.

Keywords: depression; anxiety; metacognition; mediation analysis


How to cite: Napora, E. (2017). Grandparental social support and communication with peers as predictors of resilience in adolescents from single-mother families. Annals of Psychology, 20(4), 795-814. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.4-3en


Abstract: In the research paradigm focused on the stress-loaded functioning of single-mother families it has been observed that the efficiency of coping with stress depends on many factors, among which social support is one of the most important. Research results show that a higher level of social support is usually associated with more positive indicators of the functioning of an individual. On the basis of this assumption it was expected that social support provided by grandparents would be a significant predictor of mental resilience in adolescent grandchildren from single-mother families – also in conditions differentiated by household type: living with or without grandparents. Studies performed on a sample of 278 adolescents with the Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS), the Adolescent–Peer Communication Scale, and the Resilience Measurement Scale (SPP-18) have shown that grandparental social support is not the only predictor of adolescents’ functioning.

Keywords: social resources; resilience; single-mother family


How to cite: Karaś, D., Cieciuch, J. (2017). Polish adaptation of Carol Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales. Annals of Psychology, 20(4), 837-853. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.4-4en


Abstract: The Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWBS) is a questionnaire designed by Ryff (1989) to mea-sure six dimensions of eudaimonic well-being: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. Translated into several dozen languages, this questionnaire is a commonly used instrument for measuring well-being. The article presents the effects of work on the Polish adaptation of two versions of the PWBS: full (84-item) and short (18-item), conducted as a series of four studies with a total sample of 2,035 participants aged 13 to 78.The results confirmed the reliability of the full version of the PWBS and the six-factor structure of well-being. They also confirmed the criterion validity of the questionnaire, reflected in correlations with validation instruments.

Keywords: well-being; eudaimonia; PWBS questionnaire


How to cite: Lachowska, B., Ludwikowska, K. (2017). The results of the preliminary validation of the Polish version of the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale. Annals of Psychology, 20(4), 875-894. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.4-5en


Abstract: This paper presents the Polish version of the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale (MSTAT-II) developed by D. L. McLain: a short 13-item measure of an individual’s orientation, ranging from aversion to attraction, toward stimuli that are complex, unfamiliar, and insoluble. The aim of the study was to determine the validity and reliability of the scale. The participants in the study were 303 first-year students, aged 17 to 24: 234 women and 69 men. The authors chose this kind of sample because the significance of ambiguity tolerance should be particularly high in the case of the individual’s adaptation to the demands of a new and complex situation, such as the beginning of studies. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the hypothesized one-factor structure of the model of ambiguity tolerance. The study also revealed a moderate positive relationship between MSTAT-II/PL scores and scores on the Tolerance for Ambiguity Scale (TAS) by Herman and colleagues, measuring ambiguity tolerance; MSTAT-II/PL scores were positively related to extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, positive affect, and satisfaction with life, as well as negatively related to neuroticism and negative affect. The results obtained support the use of the Polish version of the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale as a reliable (Cronbach’s α = .85) and valid measure of ambiguity tolerance.

Keywords: tolerance of ambiguity; intolerance of ambiguity; measure


How to cite: Bożek, A., Tokarz, A. (2017). The Polish adaptation of the engagement in meaningful activities survey (EMAS). Annals of Psychology, 20(4), 913-929. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.4-6en


Abstract: This study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey (EMAS; B. Goldberg, Brintnell, & J. Goldberg), which measures engagement in meaningful activities, understood as activities that serve a purpose significant from a personal or cultural perspective. We present definitions of key concepts, previous research related to the survey, and preliminary research on the Polish version of the survey. The study was conducted on a sample of 237 individuals: employees of cultural institutions, care associations, and corporations as well as teachers working in special schools and high schools. The results indicate a high reliability of the tool (Cronbach’s α = .88). They also reveal relations between engagement in meaningful activities and variables such as meaningfulness of work (r = .65) and job satisfaction (r = .65), and differences across professions in the level of engagement in meaningful activities.

Keywords: engagement; meaningful activities; Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey

Autor: Ana Ivanova
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 07.09.2018, godz. 20:51 - Ana Ivanova