Dorota JASIELSKA, Maria JARYMOWICZ (2012). Wagi nadawane emocjom pozytywnym o genezie automatycznej vs refleksyjnej a wskaźniki poziomu poczucia szczęścia // The perceived importance of automatic vs. reflective emotions and the level of subjective happiness. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 2, 7-30.


Summary: Numerous studies indicate the role of positive emotions in subjective happiness. The diversity of positive emotions leads to the question about the relative importance of emotions of different origin: those evoked automatically (automatic emotions: homeostatic and hedonic) vs. those that arise due to deliberative thinking (reflective emotions: related to self-standards vs. general, axiological con­cepts of good and evil). The study was based on two assumptions: (1) human happiness depends on the gratification of universal needs; (2) the intensity and quality of happiness depend on the level of perceived importance of reflective emotions, which stem from the fulfillment of axiological stan­dards that determine personal goals. Participants (students of the University of Warsaw; n = 67) were requested to declare their degree of happiness, and then divided into groups with low vs. high levels of happiness (LH vs. HH). Both groups estimated the importance of automatic emotions higher than that of reflective emotions. However, the HH group estimated the reflective emotions significantly higher than the LH group. Participants were also requested to the enumerate personal goals they would like to achieve, and then were divided into two groups: with low vs. high number of enumerated goals (LG vs. HG). The HG group with low estimation of reflective emotions decla­red the lowest degree of happiness, whereas the HG group with high estimation of reflective emo­tions declared the highest degree of happiness.

Key words: primary and secondary affects, affective reactions and evaluative judgments, cogni­tive standards of evaluation, personal goals, subjective happiness.




Anna Maria ZAWADZKA, Joanna RYBARCZYK-ADAMSKA, Anna DEDELIS (2012). Jak promocyjne i prewencyjne ukierunkowanie samoregulacyjne wiąże się z ważnością cech i intencją zakupu produktu? Ukierunkowanie samoregulacyjne - ocena - intencja // How is promotion-focused and prevention-focused self-regulation linked with the importance of product attributes and purchase intention? Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 2, 31-53.


Summary: Two experiments were carried out to examine consumer preferences in the context of Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory. Study 1 (N = 134) tested whether chronic regulatory focus (RFQ) and momentary regulatory focus affect the importance attached to functional and hedonic product attributes. Study 2 (N = 240) checked whether the regulatory fit of consistent or inconsistent ad­vertisements (types of advertisement appeal: prevention and promotion, and types of products: functional and hedonic) and chronic regulatory focus (RFQ) are linked with intention to purchase an advertised product. The results obtained in study 1 indicated that prevention momentary regula­tory focus or promotion chronic regulatory focus influence the importance attached to utilitarian product attributes, whereas no such influence was observed for the importance attached to hedonic product attributes. The results obtained in study 2 showed that consistent promotion advertising and promotion chronic regulatory focus affect the intention to buy a product. Moreover, the find­ings demonstrated that inconsistent advertisements (i.e. hedonic product and prevention adver­tising appeal) and promotion chronic regulatory focus affect the intention to purchase a product. It was also found that there is no significant influence of consistent prevention advertising and prevention chronic regulatory focus on the intention to buy a product.

Key words: consumer preferences, self-regulation, prevention, promotion.



Eufrozyna GRUSZECKA (2012). Rodzaj relacji interpersonalnej a zachowanie sprawcy krzywdy po jej wyrządzeniu i ustosunkowanie do ofiary // The type of interpersonal relationship as influencing perpetrator's behavior after having caused harm and their disposition towards the victim. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 2, 55-86.


Summary: The study investigated whether the kind of relationship between the perpetrator and the victim has an impact on perpetrator's behavior (attribution, remedial actions) after having caused harm. The aim of the research was also to check if there exists any correlation of such reactions (e.g. self­-blame, excuse) with posterior victim assessment. Four kinds of social relationships were exami­ned: parent-child, romantic partners, superior-subordinate, and acquaintances. Participants were asked to describe an event in which a certain person (indicated in the questionnaire) felt harmed by them and their own reactions to that event. They also estimated the victim's features on several attractiveness scales. The results show that the level of blame and responsibility attributed to themselves was the highest in the case of guilty partners in close relationships, the lowest in the case of superiors, and medium in the case of parents and acquaintances. Remedial actions are most often taken by romantic partners, much less often by parents and acquaintances, and most rarely by superiors. The frequency pattern for excuses and justifications was nearly exactly the opposite. One of the possible explanations of the results refers to the combined effect of affiliation and power motives that influence perpetrator's reactions and substantially vary across different types of social relations. The presented data also indicates that victim devaluation might be considered as a coping strategy used by the perpetrator.

Key words: harm, perpetrator, victim, blame attribution, remedial actions.



Robert NOWAK (2012). Psychologiczne aspekty tatuowania się // Psychological aspects of getting tattooed. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 15, 2, 87-104.


Summary: Tattooing was practiced in almost every human community. Very often, its functions and the mo­tivations behind it varied significantly. After a long period of negative stigmatization, getting tat­tooed has become fashionable in the last decade. The purpose of this article is to collect the avail­able results of studies on the phenomenon of tattooing. After a brief introduction, subsequent para­graphs deal with the motivational determinants of undertaking such practices and the relationship between tattooing and self-mutilation. This paper also reports studies focused on the personality traits of people who get tattooed as well as on the relationship between tattooing and identity. A se­parately discussed issue is the role of tattoos in individual identity projects as well as the impact tattoos have on the sense of group identity. In addition, attempts were made to raise new research questions.

Key words: body modification, tattoo, motivation, personality, identity.


Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 13.12.2012, godz. 19:58 - Karol Juros