Paweł SOCHA (2013). Spirituality: Explicit and Implicit. Hindrances to the Scientific Status of Research on Spirituality. Annals of Psychology, 16, 3, 369-413.


Summary: Although spirituality is a popular subject of research in many fields of science about man today, there still are problems with defining it. Their causes, at least in psychology, though unfounded, include distortions reflecting the scientist's personal bias: apologetic on the one hand and anti-fideist on the other. Bias of the first type often stems from the beliefs, held by the author of a given concept, that go beyond the paradigm of science. This refers to two concepts recognizing the existence of the spiritual dimension of the human being as substantially different from the psy­chological dimension: V. E. Frankl's logotheory, being a concept of the spiritual dimension as the source of the need for meaning, and D. Helminiak's concept, according to which spirituality is the realization of the principle of authentic transcendence of the self. Such concepts are referred to as explicit. However, there are also explicit concepts of spirituality acceptable in academic psycho­logy; the described example is the concept of spirituality developed by J. Averill. Bias of the second type dominated Western psychology for a long time. It may be the cause for the term "spirituality" not being used by the authors of the concepts whose distinctive features appear in this article. These are the implicit concepts of spirituality. Their three examples are: Terror Management Theory (developed by T. Pyszczyñski, J. Greenberg, and S. Solomon), the Meaning Maintenance Model (authored mainly by T. Proulx and S. Heine), and Józef Kozielecki's trans-gressive concept of man. They include similar elements, but the transgressive concept appears to be the most useful. The conclusion contains proposals of research using the ideas of meaning, coping with absurdity, and the form of transgression as ones that lead to spiritual transformation.

Keywords: spirituality, theory, concept, transformation.



Anna ZAWADZKA, Justyna ZALEWSKA (2013). Can Humility Bring Happiness in Life? The Relationship Between Life Aspirations, Subjective Well-Being, and Humility. Annals of Psychology, 16, 3, 415-449.


Summary: A survey was carried out to explore the relationship between life aspirations, subjective well-being, and humility (i.e., accepting one's own limitations, accepting oneself and reality, no desire for control, making use of one's failures to improve oneself, and not putting on airs). The results indi­cated that humility may serve as a predictor of intrinsic aspirations and subjective well-being. Furthermore, it was established that intrinsic aspirations correlate positively with self-acceptance and acceptance of reality whereas extrinsic aspirations correlate negatively with a lack of desire for control. Two dimensions of humility: (a) recognizing one's own limitations and (b) self-acceptance and acceptance of reality positively correlate with subjective well-being.

Keywords: humility, life aspirations, subjective well-being.



Jarosław PIOTROWSKI, Katarzyna SKRZYPIŃSKA, Magdalena ŻEMOJTEL-PIOTROWSKA (2013). The Spiritual Transcendence Scale. Construction and Validation. Annals of Psychology, 16, 3, 451-485.



This paper presents the construction of the Scale of Spiritual Transcendence (STD), which is based on Ralph Piedmont's conception of spiritual transcendence. Piedmont defined it as the ability to transcend a direct sense of time and place and to perceive life from a broader, more objective pers­pective. The obtained measure is characterized by good psychometric parameters. In the validation process (N = 1859), the relations of the Scale of Spiritual Transcendence (the global result and two main subscales) with existing measures of social approval, religiosity and spirituality, materialism, and personality traits were tested. The presented scale could be implemented in experimental and correlational studies in this field. It is designed for studies on populations above the age of 16.

Keywords: spiritual transcendence, measurement, construction.



Katarzyna SKRZYPIŃSKA, Karol KARASIEWICZ (2013). Boundaries of Spirituality – The Second Perspective –  Spiritual Sphere Questionnaire. Annals of Psychology, 16, 3, 487-538.


Summary: Studying the human spiritual sphere presents numerous methodological problems. So far, it has been much easier to study religiousness, which has more unambiguous documented behavioral indicators. However, researchers do make attempts to investigate the spirituality phenomenon empirically. The article describes the process of constructing as well as the parameters of the Spiritual Sphere Questionnaire (KSD), developed as a result of three years of research on women and men (N = 1381). The results obtained using KSD reveal the expected positive correlations with the established measures of related phenomena - religiousness, openness to experience, etc., which may testify to the tool's high validity. The method turned out to be a tool stable in time and reliable, with four characterizing clusters: (1) State of Spiritual Sphere, (2) Dynamics of Spiritual Sphere, (3) Aspirituality, and (4) Absence of Relation With a Higher Power. KSD constitutes an effective measurement solution, especially for adults (aged above 30). Combined with the methods functioning in science, it complements the picture of spirituality with a qualitative description.

Keywords: spirituality, spirituality measurement, personality, attitude.



Rafał BARTCZUK, Beata ZARZYCKA, Michał WIECHETEK (2013). The Internal Structure of the Polish Adaptation of the Post-Critical Belief Scale. Annals of Psychology, 16, 3, 539-585.


Summary: Hutsebaut and his colleagues (1996, 2000; Fontaine et al., 2003) constructed the Post-Critical Belief Scale (PCBS) in order to measure the two dimensions along which Wulff (1991) summarized the various possible approaches to religion: Exclusion vs. Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal vs. Symbolic Interpretation. In the present article, the internal structure of the Polish version of the scale is analyzed. The results obtained in ten Polish samples (N = 1775) suggest that the internal structure of the Polish version partially reflects the assumed theoretical structure of PCBS. Furthermore, the results of principal component analysis and reliability analysis are presented in the article.

Keywords: post-critical belief, religiosity, religious beliefs.



Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 11.04.2014, godz. 15:13 - Karol Juros