Katarzyna SIKORA (2013). Client’s welfare in psychologists’ ethics codes. Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 603-616.


Summary: The principle of caring for the client's welfare is the most pervasive of all the ethical principles in the profession of psychology, recognized in almost all of the psychologists' ethics codes. Although recognized as an overarching value, the norm of client welfare is not formulated with sufficient precision. Its philosophical background is unclear, and the principle itself is of an aspirational rather than regulatory character. Psychology came a long way from the 1952 American Psycholog­ical Association Ethics Code to the 2008 Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psycholo­gists. From the beginning of the 21st century, the European and North American ethnocentrism of Western ethics codes is being increasingly challenged and is gradually giving way to the universa-lization of ethical principles, based on respect for common human dignity as well as for cultural diversity.

Keywords: professional ethics in psychology, client welfare, ethics codes.






Paweł Boski (2013). Recipient's well-being  in psychologists' ethical codes - A voice in  debate. Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 625-631.


Summary: The point of departure for the remarks made in my text is Katarzyna Sikorska's paper, opening a debate on ethical issues involved in the profession of psychologist. The paper itself is, in my opinion, a solid presentation of these issues as they appear in international and Polish codes. Against this backdrop, my remarks concern the situation in Poland. They describe this situation as advanced disintegration of the community of Polish psychologists caused by the weakness of Polish Psychological Association (PTP) and by the failure to take into account the cultural rooted-ness of most treatments used in psychologists' work. The latter remark refers to the failure to take into account both the cultural identity of clients and the cultural rootedness of products imported into the country.

Keywords: professional ethics, ethical code, cross-cultural psychology, assertiveness training, individualism.



Jerzy Brzeziński (2013). On two kinds of “recipients” of professional actions undertaken by psychologists. Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 641-647.


Summary: In the article, the author introduces a distinction between two types of recipients: individuals (insti­tutions) seeking the assistance of a practitioner psychologist, and practitioner psychologists, who use the results of the work of research psychologists in order to make their assistance ethical and effective. The article stresses the role of methodological awareness (as important as ethical aware­ness). The the central idea of the paper is R. Rosenthal's thesis: "Bad science makes for bad ethics."

Keywords: methodological awareness, ethical awareness, psychologist, human participant, integri­ty, ethical standards.



Agata Celińska-Miszczuk (2013). Client welfare and the client. what and whether to define? Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 653-656.


Summary: The article "Client Welfare in Psychologists' Ethics Codes" provokes reflection on changes in the way psychologists understand human welfare and on the significance of this fact. The aim of this comment is to point to the potential risk involved in attempting to define client welfare unambi­guously. The essence of the comment - assuming, after the Code of Professional Ethics for the Psychologist currently in effect in Poland, that the paramount value in the work of a psychologist (including one who will introduce additions to the current codification) is the other person's wel­fare - is the reflection on whether it will not be more important for the welfare of the recipient of psychological services that psychologists (the "providers" of these services) focus on determining the nature of the "subject" of this welfare accurately rather than precisely define the concept of welfare.

Keywords: psychologist's professional ethics, human welfare, recipient welfare, client welfare, professional ethics codes.



Andrea Ferrero (2013). Comment on Katarzyna Sikora’s article: Client Welfare in Psychologists’ Ethics Codes. Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 663-667.


Summary: In her article, Katarzyna Sikora presents a well supported perspective on the meaning of caring for the client's welfare as well as on how this concept is included in psychology ethics codes and in declarations of ethical principles for psychology. It is well shown how the core of ethical profes­sional behavior is sometimes reflected in moral dilemmas and also how client welfare has usually been more related to aspirational values than to prescriptive standards. The author analyzes the concept of client welfare in ethics codes as more related to the concept of benefit or well being than to philosophical ideas of good and evil. The paper points out that ethics codes have to be locally developed as any general principle has to be culturally shaped within a particular society, and here the author makes an important point about the European and North American influence in current psychology ethics codes worldwide. Also presented is the challenge of universalizing ethical principles and perspectives for developing a common basis for local ethics codes within a multicultural context. The Meta-Code of Ethics is mentioned, adopted by the European Federa­tion of Psychologists' Associations in 1995, which can also be linked to the Agreement Protocol of Ethical Principles for the Professional Practice of Psychologists in Mercosur and Associated Countries, which was signed in South America in 1997, with the same spirit and quite similar principles. Finally, the paper mentions the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psy­chologists passed in 2008, its relation to human rights, and the possibility of universalization of ethics taking into account intercultural differences. Within this process, the author points out that to understand the principle of caring means to consider not only the primum non nocere principle but the principle of maximizing client welfare by respecting both individual and social dignity and rights.

Keywords: psychology, ethics codes, principle of caring, universalization, comment.



Adam Niemczyński (2013). Who is the psychologist among people?  Notes on the margin of Katarzyna Sikora's article. Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 675-680.


Summary: Katarzyna Sikora's question about the nature of ethical good that underlies the codes of psycholo­gists' professional ethics is justified. It leads to reflection on the nature of good, which, however, does not preoccupy the authors or users of ethics codes very much. What they focus on is mainly practical regulations concerning various kinds of professional conduct, which experience proves to be indispensable for keeping practitioners of the profession within the bounds of its ethos as well as within the standards of its knowledge and skills. The good that the recipient of psychological services should enjoy and the psychologist should strive to provide remains vague. This is visible in comparison with other professions rich in axiological content, such as medical or legal profes­sions. Good in the form of health or enjoying one's rights in society, which determines the axiolog-ical content in those professions, is elusive in the case of the psychologist. This axiological content in turn determines and constitutes the basis for the ethics of medical and legal professions, respec­tively. Psychologists have no such basis, or, at any rate, such a basis has not been clearly and dis­tinctly identified for them. Personal integrity is proposed as the kind of good that psychologists should seek to provide the recipients of their services with when practicing their profession.

Keywords: code of professional ethics, axiological content of profession, ethical particularism, personal integrity.



Małgorzata Toeplitz-Winiewska (2013). Is it possible to define the “welfare” of the psychologist's client? Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 685-688.


Summary: In this polemic response to Katarzyna Sikora, attention is drawn to the need to refine the term denoting the person or people that the psychologist works with, for it is inaccurate and misleading to subsume them all under the concept of "recipients." In the section on "client welfare," the view is presented that the proper subject of debate among psychologists should be those values involved in their profession that really make it possible to achieve "client welfare." The impossibility of defining this concept as well as its evaluative character may imply the necessity to abandon using it in psychologists' ethics codes.

Keywords: client, autonomy, subjectivity, respect for dignity, confidentiality.



Grzegorz Wiącek (2013). The welfare or well-being of a person with severe multiple disabilities? Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 695-699.


Summary: The paper addresses the problem of the welfare of the person who is the recipient of a psycho­logist's professional activities as the paramount principle in the ethical evaluation of such activi­ties. Emphasis is placed on two important issues connected with this problem: the accuracy of the concept of recipient of the activities undertaken by a psychologist and the comparison of the value of welfare and well-being categories in the ethical analysis of psychological activities. Emphasis in the paper is placed on the value of the concept of recipient of a psychologist's activities, which becomes particularly evident with reference to the situation of work for the benefit of individuals with various kinds of disabilities and for the benefit of their families. The article also elaborates the thesis of the greater value of the category of welfare in ethical analysis of the psychologist's professional activities.

Keywords: professional ethics, recipient of psychological activities, rehabilitation psychology, people with disability.





Katarzyna SIKORA (2013). Author’s response. Annals of Psychology, 16, 4, 711-720.


Summary: In the discussion on my article, a number of important issues have been raised. Despite the variety of opinions, the participants in the discussion were unanimous about the fact that although defining client welfare is essential for professional ethics, it is more important to build a sense of profes­sional identity and to make efforts to obtain accurate knowledge of the nature of the client as a person. Implementing ethical standards into the relationships between psychologists, namely be­tween researchers and practicing professionals, seems to be an extremely important issue. In my response I try to indicate the possible directions of further reflection in this area.

Keywords: professional ethics in psychology, internal morality of psychology, client welfare, ethics code.



Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 01.09.2014, godz. 20:57 - Karol Juros