How to cite: Strojny, P., Kossowska, M., Strojny, A. (2016). When the need for closure promotes complex cognition. Annals of Psychology, 19(1), 27-42. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.1-1en


Abstract: Lay epistemic theory is one of the most popular theoretical frameworks describing the knowledge formation process. According to it, the central variable determining the epistemic process is the need for cognitive closure. In most cases, high levels of this motivation are associated with simplified and accelerated processing of information. This can lead to an overly simplified understanding of this variable. In fact, there are reasons to believe that the typical relationship is reversed under certain circumstances. The paper is a review of the research supporting this prediction. Results were analyzed with particular emphasis on two postulates of the theory: the two phases of the epistemic process and the dual nature of the need for cognitive closure.

Keywords: need for closure, cognitive strategy, social judgment, knowledge formation, information processing.


How to cite: Szymanik-Kostrzewska, A. (2016). What is physical attractiveness? A discussion of definitions and paradigms. Annals of Psychology, 19(1), 59-74. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.1-2en


Abstract: The article raises the issue of physical attractiveness both in terms of its definition and as a theoretical construct, which forms the basis for planning empirical research. Based on a review of existing definitions and a predictive analysis of the meaning of terms, a definition of physical attractiveness as one of the types of human attractiveness is proposed. The criteria differentiating physical attractiveness from the related concept of sexual attractiveness are presented. Physical attractiveness is discussed as an object of operationalization in the process of designing research on the assessment or self-assessment of the appearance and characteristics of the human body, including a distinction between its two approaches: holistic (a set of a characteristics whose evaluations are interrelated) and elementary (one characteristic whose evaluations impact the assessment of overall physical attractiveness).

Keywords: physical attractiveness, sexual attractiveness, appearance.


How to cite: Adamska, K. (2016). Silence and breaking the silence in an organization. Annals of Psychology, 19(1), 89-101. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.1-3en


Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present the phenomenon of silence in an organization. Silence is understood as a decision not to speak out in the face of irregularities in an organization or a need for improvements in that organization. Two types of silence are considered: silence as an effect of socially shared beliefs and silence as a tactic. In the article I also consider the issue of breaking the silence. The postulate of breaking the silence is consistent with the assignment of value to the involvement of the employee in the decision making process. Silence limits participation, creativity, and the multiplicity of voices and hinders changes in the organization.

Keywords: silence, voice, organization, breaking the silence.


How to cite: Kaczmarek, M., Kaczmarek-Kurczak, P. (2016). Personality traits and self-efficacy as predictors of business performance: A longitudinal study. Annals of Psychology, 19(1), 121-137. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.1-4en


Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the role of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and self-efficacy as predictors of business performance in nascent entrepreneurs in cultural and creative industries (n = 81). The study was prospective and longitudinal – the assessment of personality preceded the start of a self-owned business by the participants – and an assessment of business performance was conducted twice: seven months and abouta year after starting the business. The results showed that the participants wereless neurotic, more extraverted, more open to experience, and more conscientious and had a stronger sense of general self-efficacy in comparison to the general population. The FFM traits were weak but significant predictors of business performance; the strongest predictive traits were extraversion, neuroticism, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Some analyses including neuroticism and extraversion supported the hypothesized mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between personality traits and some indices of business performance. The results are discussed in the context of previous studies, including meta-analyses.

Keywords: FFM personality traits, self-efficacy, entrepreneurship.




How to cite: Krogulska, A, Niedźwieńska, A. (2016). The role of time delay in memory conformity. Annals of Psychology, 19(1), 149-157. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.1-5en


Abstract: Memory conformity occurs when one person’s memory report influences another person’s subsequent report concerning the same event. In the study, we tested whether an increase in the time between a discussion of the event and its recall would be accompanied by an increase in the number of errors suggesting memory conformity. It turned out that their number was comparable, both a few minutes and a week after the conversation. In both cases, this effect was due to memory mechanisms.

Keywords: memory conformity, misinformation effect, social influence.


How to cite: Sochacka, K. (2016). A comparison of WISC-R and WAIS-R (PL) scores of children and adolescents in a longitudinal study. Annals of Psychology, 19(1), 169-178. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.1-6pl


Abstract: D. Wechsler’s tests were used to examine the same group of subjects within the intellectual norm (N = 31) twice over an interval of 13 years: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R; the subjects’ mean age was 8 years) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R; mean age – 21 years). Each measurement was carried out by the same person. Based on 62 protocols (answer sheets), intelligence quotients, scaled subtest scores, and factor scores obtained using WISC-R were compared both with the normalized version of WAIS-R (PL) (2004) and with the version of WAIS-R (PL) from before normalization (1996). Statistically significant differences were found between the results obtained using WISC-R and the normalized version of WAIS-R (PL). There is no such difference between WISC-R and the earlier version of WAIS-R (PL), from before normalization. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

Keywords: IQ stability, intelligence tests, WISC-R, WAIS-R (PL).


How to cite: Moroń, M., Grzywnowicz, P., Łojan, A, Szyszłow, M., Warlewska, E. (2016). Reinforcement sensitivity and jealousy in romantic relationships. Annals of Psychology, 19(1), 191-202. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.1-7pl


Abstract: Jealousy is an adaptive emotional reaction that signals threat to the current romantic relationship and motivates the person to protect that relationship. Given that jealousy is a mechanism of sensitivity to signals of relational threat, it was predicted that neurobiological systems of fight-flight- -freeze (FFFS) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) would be positively correlated with emotional jealousy. It was also predicted that these associations would be stronger in individuals highly committed to their relationships. We examined the mediatory role of approach-avoidance social goals in relations between BIS, FFFS, behavioral activation system (BAS), and the experience of jealousy. The present study was conducted on a group of 217 participants aged between 17 and 36 years, involved in romantic relationships. The results showed that the sensitivity of BIS and the freeze system (FFFS) was correlated positively with the intensity of jealousy. Commitment appeared to moderate the relations between FFFS and the intensity of jealousy. Avoidance social goals mediated the relation between BIS and the intensity of jealousy.

Keywords: reinforcement sensitivity, jealousy, commitment, approach-avoidance social goals.

Autor: Karol Juros
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 30.10.2016, godz. 08:21 - Ana Ivanova