Identity formation
Editors:  Anna I. Brzezińska, Jan Cieciuch





How to cite: Brzezińska, A. I., Cieciuch, J. (2016). Identity formation in unstable times. Annals of Psychology, 19(2), 213-220. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.2-1en


Abstract: The process of adolescence, including identity formation, differs significantly from what it was in previous generations. This is a consequence, among other things, of the demographic and economic changes that have taken place in recent years, locally as well as globally. This introduction is devoted to a review of these problems, and the current issue comprises texts addressing selected questions in detail. Some scholars identify groups of young people characterized by a tendency to consciously avoid making commitments typical of adults. However, research results point to the positive impact of taking on adult roles on perceiving oneself as an adult. The person’s identity develops from childhood, encompassing various domains. During the transition from childhood to adolescence, the increase in self-awareness is accompanied by an intensification of seeking information about oneself and one’s own functioning and of making plans for the future. The stage of adulthood involves the verification of previously made choices by resuming exploratory activities, whose intensity is in proportion to the amount of significant changes in the individual’s environment.

Keywords: identity domains; identity formation; sense of identity; self organization; self-authoring personality; attitudes toward globalization; early and late adolescence; early and late adulthood; social and educational context.


How to cite: Kłym-Guba, M., Cieciuch, J. (2016). The dynamics of identity exploration in various domains in early adolescence: The results of a longitudinal study. Annals of Psychology, 19(2), 239-256. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.2-2en


Abstract: In accordance with the classic – developmental – approach to identity originated by Marcia (1966), there are two basic identity formation processes: exploration and commitment. The first step on the way to mature identity is exploration. The aim of the present study was to analyze the dynamics of exploration in the period when it begins: in early adolescence. The participants in the longitudinal study (with three measurements at half-year intervals) were 327 adolescents aged 11 to 15 (M = 13.26, SD = 1.20) – elementary and middle school students. The sample was balanced in terms of gender (45% were girls). The instrument we used was the Early Identity Exploration Scale (EIES; Kłym & Cieciuch, 2015), enabling the measurement of identity exploration in 12 domains: physical appearance, free time, family of origin, work, boyfriend–girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The analysis was performed using a latent growth curve model. It turned out that in some domains (physical appearance, work, boyfriend–girlfriend relationships, and outlook on life) the level of exploration systematically increased, despite the relatively short time of the study; the domain of boyfriend–girlfriend relationships was the only one in which we found no interpersonal differentiation in the intensity of this increase. It also turned out that there was interpersonal differentiation in the level of exploration at the outset in all the domains analyzed.

Keywords: identity; identity exploration; identity domains; early adolescence; Early Identity Exploration Scale; longitudinal study.


How to cite: Brzezińska, A. I., Piotrowski, P. (2016). Identity change in the educational context: A longitudinal study of upper-secondary school students. Annals of Psychology, 19(2), 277-296. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.2-3en


Abstract: In the article we present the results of a study devoted to identity changes in late adolescence. The participants were students of three types of upper-secondary schools: basic vocational schools, technical upper-secondary schools, and general upper-secondary schools. Measurement was performed five times, in three consecutive years: 2012/2013, 2013/2014, and 2014/2015. The first measurement was carried out in the first semester of the first grade (students’ mean age: 16 years; n = 310), and the fifth measurement was performed during the first semester of the third grade (students’ mean age: 18 years). The number of students who took part in all five measurements was 118 (38% of the initial sample of n = 310). The instrument we used was the Dimensions of Identity Development Scale (DIDS/PL; Brzezińska & Piotrowski, 2010; Luyckx, Schwartz, Berzonsky et al., 2008). In the group of general upper-secondary school students, we observed an increase in adaptive exploration (in breadth and in depth) as well as an increase in the strength of commitments over the 2.5 years of schooling. Among students of vocational schools, especially basic vocational schools, we observed regressive changes, such as a decrease in adaptive exploration, a decrease in commitments, an increase in the experienced difficulties with identity formation (an increase in ruminative exploration). The results confirmed that different educational paths may involve differences in terms of the changes taking place in students’ identity in the period of adolescence.

Keywords: adaptive exploration; ruminative exploration; commitment making; late adolescence; upper-secondary schools; progressive changes; regressive changes.


How to cite: Senejko, A., Łoś, Z. (2016). Attitudes toward globalization and identity styles. Annals of Psychology, 19(2), 315-332. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.2-4en


Abstract: The main aim of the article is to show the possible relations between attitudes toward globalization as described by Senejko and Łoś and the specificity of identity styles as described by Berzonsky. The participants were 601 people aged 16-26 – school students, university students, and working people from the Dolnośląskie Voivodeship, Poland. We used the following instruments: The World–I Questionnaire (measuring attitudes toward globalization) and the Identity Style Inventory (ISI-5). The results obtained in correlational analyses and cluster analyses show that people with a strongly manifested accepting attitude toward globalization are characterized mainly by the informational style and the least strongly by the normative and diffuse-avoidant styles. As the results showed, the critical attitude toward globalization occurs in the form of two clusters: (1) with strong critical and accepting attitudes (people with this configuration of attitudes exhibit a strongly expressed informational identity style and commitment and a weakly expressed normative style); (2) with strong critical and fearful attitudes (individuals with this configuration of attitudes mainly exhibit the normative identity style and commitment). People with a strongly expressed fearful attitude toward globalization typically use the diffuse-avoidant or normative styles, while the least strongly expressed identity style in this group is the informational style and commitment. Cluster analysis made it also possible to distinguish people with a distanced attitude toward globalization, characterized by fairly strong identity commitment.

Keywords: identity styles; attitudes toward globalization; private conceptions of the globalized world.


How to cite: Pilarska, A. (2016). Multiple roles and sense of identity among women in early and later adulthood. Annals of Psychology, 19(2), 349-364. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.2-5en


Abstract: The article presents the results of a study conducted on a sample of 80 women aged 19-25 and 72 women aged 40-74. The relationships of the two components of self-complexity (the quantity of self-aspects and the amount of overlap between their contents) with the multidimensionally defined sense of identity were examined. Additionally, phase of life differences in the magnitude of these relationships were also investigated. I used the Self-Complexity Questionnaire (SCQ; Barczak, Besta, & Bazińska, 2007) and the Multidimensional Questionnaire of Identity (MQI; Pilarska, 2012). The obtained results showed that the predictive importance of the number of roles for the sense of identity was marginal, whereas the similarity in the content of roles seemed to favor maintaining the sense of identity. In addition, although significant differences were observed in the self--concept structure and the strength of the sense of identity between the two groups of women, the relationships between these areas of personality were not affected by the phase of the life cycle.

Keywords: role overlap; sense of identity; multiple roles; self-complexity.


How to cite: Brygoła, E. (2016). Personal identity formation processes and the characteristics of self-authoring personality. Annals of Psychology, 19(2), 383-400. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2016.19.2-6en


Abstract: The article presents a study concerning the relations between identity formation processes as theorized by Luyckx and colleagues (2008) and the formation of self-authoring personality according to Obuchowski (2011). The aim of the study was to establish whether and how identity formation processes are related to the overall level of self-authoring (manifesting itself in the levels of agency, intentionality, meaning in life, and creative adaptation), whether and how particular characteristics of self-authoring personality explain the intensity of identity formation processes, and whether and how the intensity of identity formation processes determines the formation of self-authoring personality. The participants were 140 people aged 30 to 39 (M = 33.15, SD = 2.48). The results indicate positive associations of the processes of commitment making and identification with commitment with the overall level of self-authoring and as well as a negative association between ruminative exploration and the overall level of self-authoring. A strong relationship was found between the configuration of variables making up a non-self-authoring personality and the configuration of variables referred to as ruminative moratorium.

Keywords: exploration processes; commitment making; identification with commitment; self-authoring personality; personal development; personal identity.

Autor: Ana Ivanova
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 30.10.2016, godz. 08:22 - Ana Ivanova