Czesław S. NOSAL (2006). Doświadczenie numinosum, poznanie B, różne drogi religijności // Experience of numinosum, cognition of being and various ways to religion. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 21-36.


Summary: This article attempts at integration of the basic components of the concept of numinosum (as understood in the theological theory developed by R. Otto) and the attributes of cognition of Being (as understood in A. Maslow's theory). It must be stressed that the both theoretical frameworks are complementary. Experience of numinosum (misterium tremendum) represents an invariant in terms of the manifested emotions and feelings, while cognition of Being involves the tendency to searching for, capturing and evaluation of a whole from the context of personal values. Four ways to religion (experience of numinosum) are described as related to different types of consciousness according to Jung's theory of psychological types.

Key words: psychology of religion, experience of numinosum, cognition of Being, types of mind,
Jung's theory, Maslow's theory.


Rafał P. BARTCZUK, Marek JAROSZ (2006). Funkcja religijności w procesie radzenia sobie ze stresem. Koncepcja Kennetha I. Pargamenta // The function of religiosity in the process of coping with stress. Kenneth I. Pargament’s theory. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 37-52.


Summary: In psychological research areas of religion and stress have been interconnected for many years. Among theories explaining the function of religion in stressful situations, the theory of religious coping developed by K. I. Pargament has recently gained considerable popularity. This approach can be characterized as cognitive, process-oriented and pragmatic. This article presents the terminological apparatus of this theory, the explanation the theory gives for the role of religion on particular stages of the process of coping with stress and mechanisms responsible for this role. The religious coping strategies described by Pargament are also characterized. Despite of some theoretical drawbacks, owing to its multi-dimensionality, this theory provided bases for extensive and promising research programmes. It introduced a new point of view on the associations between religiosity and psychic health, which provided an impulse for boosting research in psychology of religion.

Key words: religiosity, stress, coping, religion, function of religion, religious coping.


Jacek ŚLIWAK(2006). Niepokój a religijność // Anxiety and religiosity. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 53-81.


Summary: This article undertakes the issue of associations between anxiety and religiosity, understood as experiencing the relationship with God. According to numerous authors, e.g. Horney (1976, p. 53), Kępiński (1987, p. 298), Argyle (1999), anxiety exerts strong influence on human behaviour. Argyle, the famous researcher of interpersonal relationships, points to such consequences of high anxiety as isolation from others, lack of friends, egocentrism, deficits of social adaptation, low assertiveness, tendency to submissiveness. R. B. Cattell holds that individuals with high charac-
terological anxiety reveal low efficiency in adaptation processes, lack of self-confidence, distrust in oneself and others. The objective of the study presented in this article was to investigate associations between general, overt and covert anxiety (IPAT Anxiety Scale by Cattell) and features of the relationship with God (The Scale of Relationship to God by D. Hutsebaut). The results showed statistically significant associations between general, overt and covert anxiety, gender and four dimensions of religiosity: rebelliousness, guilt, identification, cohumanity. The first two scales showed positive correlations with anxiety and the latter two scales - negative correlations.

Key words: anxiety, structure of anxiety, general anxiety, covert anxiety, overt anxiety, religiosity,
live relationship to God.


Adam BIELA (2006). Nowe zgromadzenia agoralne jako zbiorowe reakcje ludzi na świecie na wiadomość o śmierci Papieża Jana Pawła II // New agoral gathering as a collective reaction of people in the world to the message of death of Pope John Paul II. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1,  83-93.


Summary: The paper aims to interpret the collective behaviour of people which occurred simultaneously around the world as a reaction to the death of Pope John Paul II. Such a phenomenon has never been described in psychological literature before and the concept of agoral gathering (Biela, Tobacyk, 1987; Biela 1989; Prężyna, 1996) has been chosen to account for it. However, due to its novel features, the analysed phenomenon necessitated introduction of a new category of agoral gathering, namely mundial agoral gathering. This took place when the death of the charismatic leader strengthened universal values and ideas which were anchored in the structure of symbols stored in the collective memory of local communities around the world. The mundial agoral gathering made evident that mundial-inter-self-transcendence of values, ideas, expectations and goods occurred among participants of the mourning after Pope John Paul II.

Key words: agoral gathering, collective behaviour, mourning after the death of Pope John Paul II.


Andrzej E. SĘKOWSKI (2006). Stymulowanie rozwoju zdolności w świetle teorii inteligencji sprzyjającej powodzeniu życiowemu Roberta J. Sternberga // Stimulation of gifts development in the light of R. J. Sternberg’s theory of successful inteligence. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 95-105.


Summary: The article aims at presenting views on possibilities of stimulation of gifts and intelligence. This issue is discussed in the perspective of R. J. Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence. This theory is an example of the tendency to perceive intelligence as a combination of diverse, relatively independent dimensions. This theory distinguishes analytical, creative and practical intelligence. The term intelligence is used in this theory interchangeably with the term gift. Due to increasing need expressed mainly by practitioners working in youth education, it is important to search for the possibilities of developing those skills which particularly influence extra-academic achievements. This approach is complementary to the traditionally hold view of general intelligence as closely related to academic achievements.

Key words: successful intelligence, analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, practical intelligence, achievements.


Janusz KOSTRZEWSKI, Ewa ZASĘPA (2006). Cechy osobowości 10-, 13-letnich dzieci z lekką niepełnosprawnością intelektualną // Personality traits 10-, 13-aged children with mild mental retardation. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 107-120.


Summary: The present study examined differences between the mild mental retarded children and their normally developing peers in regard personality traits measured by Children's Personality Questionaire (the CPQ) designed by Porter and Cattell. The research was carried out on the group of 279 children aged 10-, 13-year old involving 92 mild mental retarded girls, 87 normally developing girls, 50 mild mental retarded boys, 50 typically developing boys. The results of this study revealed out, that mild mental retarded children characterize lower level of personality integration, more depressed, lower sense of adjustment to environment and emotional maturity, more simple-mindedness, sensibility, respect the moral norms and other people.

Key words: personality traits, mild mental retardation.


Maria OLEŚ (2006). Psychologiczna charakterystyka dzieci o wysokim i niskim poczuciu osamotnienia // Psychological characteristics of children with high and low levels of loneliness. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 121-140.


Summary: The article focuses on the issue of loneliness in children. Children with high and low levels of loneliness were compared on a range of measures pertaining to personality (Cattell's CPQ), self-esteem (Rosenberg's SES and Coopersmith's SEI), assertiveness (Michelson and Wood's CABS) and clinical variables crucial from the point of view of normal interpersonal relationships: depression (Birleson's DSRS and Kovac's CDI) and pessimism (Kazdin's HPLS). Additional analyses were carried out to identify the variables determining loneliness o school-age children. The study involved N = 90 children (41 girls and 49 boys) aged 11-13. The results showed that children with high loneliness are more closed, emotionally sensitive, shy, submissive and reflexive, as compared to non-lonely children. They were found to have increased emotional tension, tendency for self-blame and low self-esteem. They also showed lowered mood and pessimistic attitude towards future. Low self-esteem, pessimism and shyness were found to be the main factors accounting for loneliness in children, although in this respect gender-specific differences were also found. The results were discussed in terms of traits theory and social-cognitive theory. Practical implications of this study point to the need for development of intervention programmes designed for children with high loneliness. Such programmes should address action towards enhancement of self-esteem and development of social skills.

Key words: children, loneliness, personality, self-esteem.


Maria BRAUN-GAŁKOWSKA, Jolanta GIERA (2006). Reakcje dzieci na internowanie ojców – działaczy Solidarności // Children’s reactions to their father’s internment. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 141-158.


Summary: The tests show what children experienced during the time their fathers were interned under martial law in December 1981. Such children numbered in Poland ca. 20.000. The tests were conducted among 30 mothers who talked about the reactions of 54 children aged 1 to 18. They reported on the changes in their children's behaviour. What their children said in projective tests was coherent with mothers' reports. The children, irrespective of their age, yearned after their fathers. At the same time they lived under threat, manifested a heightened level of anxiety and fear. Therefore they wanted to sleep with their mothers and be always close to them. Their fear was associated with numerous psychosomatic symptoms and a fall of general immunity. In younger children there was in most cases a regression in self-service activities, their sleeping patterns were disturbed, they were afraid of darkness, often woke up and screamed, disturbance of mood, grimaces, and weepiness. In older children their anxiety considerably increased, but at the same time there were other changes. Their fear was more concrete (fear of militiamen, fear of necessity of emigration). At the same time they were proud of their fathers, and in many cases sought to take on some roles, took care of their mothers or younger brothers and sisters. Some of the reported patterns of behaviour were similar to those in other situations when children are separated from their fathers, but in total the changes in question constitute a different syndrome.

Key words: father, political repression.


Dorota KORNAS-BIELA (2006). Psychospołeczne aspekty stosowania środków wczesnoporonnych // Psychosocial aspects of early abortion. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 159-180.


Summary: There exist various types of early abortive methods, whose aim is to stop the development of a conceived child. Due to their variety (e.g. hormonal contraception, emergency contraceptive pill, medical abortion RU-486) the experiences of women who used them and the psychological consequences of such procedures are diverse. The article discusses the psychological conditions in which the decision of early abortion is taken, its emotional consequences and factors modifying the women's experiences. The main focus is on medical abortion (RU-486), as on the one hand it is becoming common popular, and on the other hand, it particularly illustrates the problems characteristic for early abortion.

Key words: hormonal contraception, emergency contraception, post-coital contraception, pharmacological abortion, medical abortion (RU-486), early abortive methods.


Tytus SOSNOWSKI, Marek WIECH (2006). Przesądność i próba jej pomiaru: Kwestionariusz Otwartości Przekonań (KOP20) // Supersition and its measurement: Development of the Questionnaire of Belief Openness. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 181-203.


Summary: Superstition and an attempt to measure it: Questionnaire of Belief Openness. The first part of the article presents contemporary research on superstition, discusses its sources, universal vs local character, and belief in good luck and bad luck as the key elements of superstition. The second part of the paper presents development of the Questionnaire of Belief Openness (Kwestionariusz Otwartości Przekonań - KOP20) and research on its psychometric characteristics. It was found that KOP20 is practically unifactorial scale of high homogeneity and almost perfect internal consistency (Cronbach's a = 0.96). According to our predictions, test scores correlate negatively with level of education, and positively - with authoritarianism, anxiety, emotional reactivity and perseveration.

Key words: superstition, Questionnaire of Belief Openness (KOP20).





Romuald JAWORSKI (2006). Propozycja psychologii bazującej na antropologii chrześcijańskiej // Proposal of Christian psychology. Roczniki Psychologiczne // Annals of Psychology, 9, 1, 205-226.


Summary: The proposal of Christian psychology is an offer of an outlook on man's psychical world from the Christian perspective, based on the Christian anthropology assumptions. The dialogue of Christian psychology with other trends in psychology has to include the conception of man and the conception of science. The encounter of Christian psychology with other types of this scientific discipline rich today may take place both at university and in a therapeutically office. It seems to be right to make an effort in order to redefine health and disorders, norm and pathology in the light of Christian anthropology and the output of empirical psychology. In the process of the integration of psychology and Christian faith one should particularly bear in mind, that the result of the synthesis achieved in Christian psychology has to be both a coherent system of knowledge and its practical use in the therapy. Christian psychology sees its role in the reinterpretation of different aspects of man's mental life described by academic psychology. Its objective is to rectify a frequently distorted image of life and man, of God and the world, of the norm, the health and the illness, of a therapist and the science. Christian conception and interpretation of human life takes into consideration its origin, properties, goal, the fact of suffering and sinfulness. Therefore some specific human experiences such as: sin, grace, suffering and mercy, the goal and meaning of life are of interests for Christian psychology.

Key words: christian anthropology, christian psychology, integration of psychology and Christian
faith, psychology and religion.

Autor: Stanisław Sarek
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 11.03.2013, godz. 09:29 - Karol Juros