How to cite: Popiel, A., Zawadzki, B. (2017). Diagnosis of personality disorders: Selected methods and models of assessment. Annals of Psychology, 20(2), 241-245. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.2-1en


Abstract: Both clinical and theoretical aspects of the problems of people suffering from personality disorders attract researchers’ attention. An attempt to modify the current classification systems confronts scholars with the problems of the uncertain empirical status of the criteria for diagnosing this group of disorders and the imperfection of assessment instruments. The text is an introduction to a volume of articles devoted to personality disorders, particularly to historical and theoretical conceptions of personality disorders, instruments enabling the diagnosis of personality disorders and the assessment of cognitive schemas specific to personality disorders (in the light of both Beck’s cognitive theory and the Young schema theory).

Keywords: personality disorders; prevalence; classifications; diagnosis; assessment instruments.


How to cite: Popiel, A., Keegan, E. (2017). Personality disorders: A brief historical introduction. Annals of Psychology, 20(2), 265-280. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.2-2en


Abstract: In this paper we aim to portray the evolution of the understanding, classification and diagnosis of personality disorders. We analyze the characteristics of normal and abnormal personality in the light of the debate about the nature of mental disorders. A brief historical outline of the conceptualization of personality disorders is followed by a description of the evolution of contemporary diagnostic systems. The limitations and problems of these systems are analyzed.

Keywords: personality disorders; history; diagnosis; classification; DSM-5.


How to cite: Bloo, J., Arntz, A., Schouten, E. (2017). The Borderline Personality Disorder Checklist: Psychometric evaluation and factorial structure in clinical and nonclinical samples. Annals of Psychology, 20(2), 311-336. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.2-3en 1


Abstract: The present study examined the assessment and conceptualization of borderline personality disorder with the Borderline Personality Disorder Checklist (BPD Checklist). The BPD Checklist is a DSM-IV based self-report questionnaire, designed to assess the experienced burden of specific BPD symptoms during the previous month. The participants in the study were 140 BPD patients, 55 Cluster C personality disorder patients, 57 patients with only Axis I psychopathology, and 87 nonclinical controls. The psychometric properties of the BPD Checklist and changes during treatment were assessed. First-order confirmatory factor analyses using the BPD Checklist items on seven dimensional BPD models supported both a one-dimensional BPD model and a nine-dimensional one, the latter based on the DSM-IV criteria. Internal consistency as well as construct, concurrent, and discriminant validity proved to be very good. Clinical norms and cutoff scores with high sensitivity and specificity were derived. The questionnaire is suitable as a screening instrument and treatment outcome measure since it proved to be sensitive to change.

Keywords: borderline personality disorder; assessment; psychometrics; factor structure; validity.


How to cite: Zawadzki, B., Popiel, A., Pragłowska, E., Newman, C. (2017). Specificity of dysfunctional beliefs in personality disorders: Psychometric characteristics of the Polish translation and modified version of the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ). Annals of Psychology, 20(2), 355-372. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.2-4en


Abstract: The present analyses focused on the adaptation of the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ) – a tool measuring beliefs specific to personality disorders. Two Polish versions of the PBQ were developed: a translation of the original version consisting of 126 items, and a modified version comprised of 124 items (the scale for borderline personality was made diagnostically independent; the scale for schizotypal personality was added, and the items were assigned to the scales not only on the basis of their content but also on the basis of factor analysis results). For both versions, indicators of measurement reliability and validity were obtained based on results from more than 1,600 subjects. The data showed that the scales of both versions demonstrated acceptable reliabili ty in terms of both internal consistency and temporal stability. The values of convergent validity of the scales in both versions were comparable (correlations with scales of the SCID-II questionnaire for Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II and TALEIA-400A: Test for AxiaL Evaluation and Interview for Clinical, Personnel, and Guidance Applications, assessing personality disorders), but scales of the modified PBQ version showed better discriminant validity (its internal structure also was very clearly confirmed by the results of confirmatory factor analysis). Insufficiently high convergent validity was found for both PBQ versions, including high intercorrelations among scales. Therefore, the discussion emphasized that although the PBQ allows for the identification of specific beliefs in personality disorders, it is not a diagnostic equivalent for tools assessing disorders per se.

Keywords: core beliefs; Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ); personality disorders; diagnosis; convergent and discriminant validity.


How to cite: Staniaszek, K., Popiel, A. (2017). Development and validation of the Polish experimental short version of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-ES-PL) for the assessment of early maladaptive schemas. Annals of Psychology, 20(2), 401-427. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.2-5en


Abstract: The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) measures the intensity of early maladaptive schemas connected with symptoms of mental disorders, particularly personality disorders. We conducted a procedure of shortening the Polish version of the YSQ, analogous to the original one, and determined the psychometric properties of the instrument thus developed by performing a reliability and validity analysis (n = 1.073). In the second part of the study we tested the factor structure of the YSQ using confirmatory factor analysis in the sample from Study 1 and an independent group (n = 898). We reduced the number of items in the questionnaire from 232 to 90 – leaving five items in each of the 18 scales corresponding to specific schemas. We obtained adequate and high internal consistency coefficients for each subscale and for the whole instrument. The overall measure of schemas was positively associated with beliefs characteristic for all personality disorders measured by the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ). The intensity of the schemas (except the Self-Sacrifice scale) significantly differentiated participants from the clinical (n = 31) and nonclinical groups (n = 1,042). We also confirmed the theoretical factor structure of the instrument, although the weakness of some measures of fit suggests the need for further research. The obtained results support the use of the experimental short Polish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire as a measure of early maladaptive schemas.

Keywords: Young Schema Questionnaire; YSQ; early maladaptive schemas; psychometric analysis; factor structure; personality disorders; schema therapy.


How to cite: Strus, W., Rowiński, T., Cieciuch, J., Kowalska-Dąbrowska, M., Czuma, I., Żechowski, C. (2017). The Pathological Big Five: An attempt to build a bridge between the psychiatric classification of personality disorders and the trait model of normal personality. Annals of Psychology, 20(2), 451-472. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.2-6en


Abstract: The fifth edition of the DSM diagnostic manual has presented a hybrid system of personality disorder diagnosis, which integrates categorical and dimensional approach to diagnosis, building a kind of bridge between psychiatric classifications of disorders and psychological research on the structure of normal personality. The key element of this system is a new dimensional model of pathological personality traits. This article presents the results of the empirical verification of this model in Poland. The participants in the study were 754 individuals from the nonclinical population, aged 16–86 (M = 36.45, SD = 16.65), including 52% women. Normal personality traits were measured by means of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and pathological personality traits – by means of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5); the risk of personality disorders was determined on the basis of SCID-II (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II) questionnaire scores. The obtained results proved to be consistent with the expectations: (1) on the level of the five broad traits, the pathological DSM-5 model strongly corresponds to the Five-Factor Model of normal personality; (2) the DSM-5 model predicts the categories of disorders better than the Five-Factor Model does.

Keywords: personality disorders; DSM-5 model; personality traits; PID-5; Five-Factor Model.


How to cite: Zawadzki, B. (2017). The location of personality disorders in the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits. Annals of Psychology, 20(2), 493-512. DOI: 10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.2-7en


Abstract: The aim of the paper was to characterize personality disorders in terms of the dimensions of the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits (CPM) developed by Strus, Cieciuch, and Rowiński. It was expected that personality disorders characterized by the profiles of traits from the five-factor model of personality (FFM) would be located in the sector delimited by poles Gamma- and Delta- and including pole Alfa-. The author analyzed data collected in a sample of 2,284 subjects tested by means of the NEO-FFI and three other instruments: the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II), and the TALEIA-400A questionnaire (Test for AxiaL Evaluation and Interview for Clinical, Personnel, and Guidance Applications) for the assessment of personality disorders as well as compared them with the data from the meta-analysis by Saulsman and Page (2004) concerning the relations between personality disorders and FFM traits. The obtained correlations confirmed the research expectations. In Discussion, the author points out the heuristic value of the CPM for differentiating the norm from pathologies, which includes the differential diagnosis of personality disorders.

Keywords: five-factor model of personality; Circumplex of Personality Metatraits; personality disorders; Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ); SCID-II; TALEIA-400A.

Autor: Ana Ivanova
Ostatnia aktualizacja: 12.02.2018, godz. 15:55 - Ana Ivanova